Skip to main content

Full text of "Spar-torpedo instructions for the United States Navy"

See other formats


^vWwu^jiu .Nwbj 



SPAR-TORPEDO INSTRUCTIONS 



FOR THE 



UNITED STATES NAVY 




1890. 



PREPARED AT THE TOEPEDO STATION, 

BY DIRECTION OF THE 

BUREAU OF ORDNANCE 



TORPEDO STATION PRINT. 
MAY 1890. 



These Torpedo Instructions, revised and prepared at 
the Torpedo Station by order of the Bureau of Ordnance, 
are approved for use in the Navy. 

W. M. FOLGEE, 

Chief of Bureau. 
Bureau of Ordnance, 

May 1st, 1890. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I. Service Torpedo. — Pattern D. 
II. Exercise Torpedo. — Pattern D. 

III. Circuit-closer, Contact Torpedo. — Pattern B. 

IV. Fig. 1. Ship's Secondary Spar. — Pattern A. 
" Fig. 2. Boat's Secondary Spar. — Pattern A. 
V. Contact Spar Leading- Wires. — Pattern B. 

VI. Spar-Torpedo Boat-Fittings. — Pattern B. 
VII. Junction of Tubes Forming Boat's Spar. — Pat- 
tern A. 
VIII. Fig. 1. Detonator. 
" Fig. 2. Detonator Block. 
IX. Fig. 1. Permanent Wires. 
" Fig. 2. Connections with Firing Key of "A" 

Machine. 
" Fig. 3. Connections with Firing Battery. 
X. Fig. 1. Electric Switch. 
" Fig. 2. Terminal. 
XI. Heel-Fittings for Ship's Spar. 
XII. Ship's Spar-Fittings. 

XIII. Battery Cell. 

XIV. Battery Tester. 

XV. Fig. 1. Hand-Firing Key.— Pattern B. 
u Fig. 2. Diagram Showing Hand-Firing Key in Cir- 
cuit. 

XVI. Fig. 1. "A" Machine and Firing Key Connected. 
" Fig. 2. "C" Machine Connected. 

XVII. Fig. 1. Firing Key, Short Circuit. 

" Fig. 2. Firing Key, Testing Circuit. 
" Fig. 3. Firing Key, Firing Circuit. 
XVIII. Steam-Drier. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Spar-Torpedo Outfit — General Description — Care 
and Preservation 1 

CHAPTER II. 
Preparation of Torpedoes 17 

CHAPTER III. 
Electrical Apparatus 27 

CHAPTER IV. 

Gun-Cotton — How Packed — Stowage — Care — In- 
spection and Drying 39 

APPENDIX. 

Duties of the Inspector of Ordnance — List of Arti- 
cles in Outfit — Weights — Stowage Space.... 51 

INDEX 59 

PLATES 69 



Spar-Torpedo Instructions. 



CHAPTER I. 
SPAE-TOEPEDO OUTFIT. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. CARE AND PRESERVATION. 

Class D. — Includes one set of Ship's Torpedoes, Service 
and Exercise, one set of Boat's Torpedoes, Service and 
Exercise, and one set of circuit-closers and appurtenances 
for the conversion of Service into Contact Torpedoes. 

Service and Exercise Torpedoes are to be used from 
ships and boats; Contact Torpedoes from boats only. 

Many articles in a Torpedo Outfit are common to the 
different sets comprised in Class D, in which case similar 
articles are classed together for convenience of stowage 
and transportation. If the whole of Class D is not issued, 
then only a proportionate part of those articles designated 
as "Spare" are issued. Articles that belong exclusively 
to any one set are issued with that set only. 

SERVICE TORPEDO. 

Pattern D. — Plate I. 

(Twenty-four are issued, — Twelve for use from ships 
and twelve from boats.) 

This torpedo, intended for use from either ships or 
boats, is 12| inches long and 9 inches square, inside meas- 
urement, and is made of sheet iron tinned inside and out, 
coated inside with shellac and painted outside with as- 
phaltum. Around a filling hole in the top is soldered a 



brass ring having on its inner circumference, a screw- 
thread for a brass screw-cover which bears a stuffing-box 
for the entrance of the spar leading-wires. A rubber 
w r asher between the cover and ring makes the case water- 
tight. Riveted to the top is a tinned malleable iron frame 
fitted with four lugs. A handle secured to two of the 
lugs forms a brace for the spindle that attaches the tor- 
pedo to the secondary spar; this spindle has two curved 
arms at one end that straddle the handle and secure to 
the other two lugs by screw-bolts, a projection on the 
crown of the handle fitting into a recess in the stem of 
the spindle. To the bottom of the case is riveted a tinned 
malleable iron plate for attaching a circuit-closer. 

The primer-case, 8-J- inches long and 3 inches square, 
inside measurement, is made of tin coated inside and out 
with shellac and is closed at one end. 

The torpedo-case, empty but complete except the spin- 
dle, weighs about 15 lbs. The charge of the torpedo, in- 
cluding the primer of 21 lbs. of dry gun-cotton, is equiv- 
alent to about 34 lbs. of dry gun-cotton. 

When issued, the torpedo-cases are completely filled 
with wet gun-cotton, the screw-cover is screwed down 
tight and the hole in the stuffing-box is closed tight by 
screwing down the water-cap over the spherical rubber 
packing placed sideways in its seat. 

EXERCISE TORPEDO. 

Pattern D. — Plate II. 

(Twelve are issued, two of which are empty, for use from ships or boats). 

This torpedo, 12-J inches long and 3 T a g inches square, 
inside measurement, is made of tin and is closed at the 
lower end. It is coated inside and out with shellac. To 
the upper end is soldered a brass flange having a loop on 



one side and a throw-back hinge on the opposite side. The 
cover consists of a square brass plate with two loops one 
of which rests over the loop on the flange, the other re- 
ceiving the lug of the throw-back hinge. A thumb-screw, 
fitted to the end of the lug, secures one side of the cover 
and a transportation thumb-screw, fitted to the loops, 
secures the other side. The cover bears a stuffing-box for 
the entrance of the spar leading-wires. A rubber washer 
between the cover and flange makes the case water-tight. 
A loop is fitted to one side of the case to receive the lower 
end of the spindle. 

The weight of this torpedo, empty but complete, ex- 
cept the spindle, is 3^ lbs. and its charge is equivalent to 
about 4 lbs. of dry gun-cotton. 

When issued, all the exercise torpedo-cases, except two, 
are completely filled with wet gun-cotton, the cover is 
closed tight and the hole in the stuffing-box is closed tight 
by screwing down the water-cap over the spherical rubber 
packing placed sideways in its seat. 

STUFFING-B OXES . 

Plates I. and II. 

Stuffing-boxes provide a water-tight entrance for the 
spar leading-wires through the covers of the torpedo- 
cases. 

In the center of each cover, around the hole for the 
entrance of the leading- wires, is a brass rim fitted with a 
screw-thread outside, and bored out, inside, with a slightly 
conical taper, providing a seat for the packing. 

The packing is of partly vulcanized rubber, 1 inch in 
diameter, spherical in shape, with two parallel holes, each 
^ inch in diameter, for reeving the leading-wires. 

The water-cap screws on the brass rim and compresses 



the packing in its seat, a friction-ring in the top of the cap 
preventing twisting of the packing when screwing down. 

A hole, f inch in diameter, through the top of the 
water-cap, permits reeving the spar leading-wires. 

When rubber packing is to be left seated for a long 
time the seat for the packing should be coated with 
shellac and the packing brushed with black lead to pre- 
vent adhesion. 

CIRCUIT-CLOSER. CONTACT TORPEDO . 

Pattern B. — Plate III. 

(Four are issued, to convert Service Torpedoes into Contact Tor- 
pedoes, for use from boats.) 

The circuit-closer consists of a cylindrical brass casting, 
having one end closed, and on this end are four feet by 
which it is secured to the lower head of the service tor- 
pedo by screws. The cylinder, 4| inches long and 5 
inches in diameter, is closed at the open end by a screw- 
cover, having four lugs that serve as bearings for the 
contact-arms; these arms, four in number, work in slots 
cut in a plunger that passes through the center of the 
cap, and they are held in place by screws through the 
ends of two arms and their lugs. Inside the cylinder are 
two insulated contact-springs secured to binding-posts in 
an ebonite collar. This collar screws on the end of a short 
brass tube that carries a plunger tipped on the inner end 
with ebonite. A stout spiral spring in the tube through 
which passes this plunger, maintains, normally, the end 
of the plunger clear of the contact-springs. A rubber 
diaphragm separates the plunger in the cover from the 
plunger in the tube, and also acts as a washer to the cover, 
making the cylinder water-tight; a brass washer, laid on 
this diaphragm, acts as a friction-plate for the cover to 
turn on when screwed up. A safety-pin through the 



outer plunger prevents its being forced in accidentally. 
When this pin is withdrawn, any pressure on the contact- 
arms tends to force the inner plunger in against the ac- 
tion of the spiral spring and to close the break between 
the contact-springs. 

The break is T 3 g inch and the tension of the spiral spring 
is 75 lbs. 

On the side of the cylinder is fitted a stuffing-box fur- 
nishing a water-tight entrance for the leading-wires to the 
binding-posts of the contact-springs. 

The circuit-closer, complete, weighs 7 lbs. 

SECOND AKY SPAKS. 

Pattern A. — Plate IV. 
(One is furnished for each Service Torpedo.) 

These are iron pipes, 8 feet long. Those for ships' use 
have a slot cut in one end, for a key. Those for use in 
boats are fitted at one end with an iron disc, called a butt, 
and at 2 feet 2 inches from the butt an iron cap is riveted 
to the spar. All secondary spars have, at 5 inches from 
the outer end, a hole for the torpedo-pin. Secondary 
spars are packed six in a box; those for ships having a 
key stopped to each to be used in securing the secondary 
spar to the inner spar-band; those for boats having a tog- 
gle stopped to each to be used in securing the secondary 
spar to the boat spar. 

TORPEDO PINS. 
Plate IV. 
Torpedo pins are short iron pins with an eye in one end, 
to which a spun-yarn tail is spliced, designed to secure 
torpedoes to secondary spars. One is provided for each 
service and exercise torpedo. They are packed, with the 
spindles, in Box 53. 



6 



REEL-BOX. 

This contains 300 feet of insulated double-conductor 
wire cable. The inner ends of the cable are connected to 
binding-screws on the sides of the reel, where short wires 
are to be attached, for making connections with batteries, 
etc., after the requisite amount of cable has been unreeled. 
A handle is becketed to the cover of the box, to be used 
in reeling up the cable. The binding-screws must be kept 
free from rust (no oil to be used in cleaning), and must be 
occasionally turned to keep them from setting. 

The cable, as now issued, consists of two cores, each 
core composed of seven No. 22 A. W. G. copper wires of 
not less than 95% conductivity, coated with tin and laid 
up in a strand. Each core is separately insulated with 
okonite composition to an external diameter of ^ inch 
and is wrapped with tape soaked in okonite composition. 
The two insulated cores, laid side by side, are covered 
with hemp braiding to protect them from chafe. 

The resistance of the core is 2.2 ohms per 1000 feet. 

The cable in the reel-box is for general use and to re- 
place disabled permanent wires. It must never be sub- 
jected to a strain of over 100 pounds, nor jerked or hauled 
in from any length, but under-run. 

The cable must be stowed in a cool, dry place. 

ship's wire-box. 

This box is marked "Wire-Box — Ship's." It contains 
four spar leading-wires of insulated double-conductor cop- 
per wire cable, 70 feet each in length, precisely similar to 
that found in the reel-box, and two machine-connecting 
wires 12 feet each in length. 

The spar leading-wires are to connect the torpedo with 
the terminals of the permanent wires. To guard against 
mistakes in making connections those for use on the star- 



board side are painted green and marked with one knot 
and those for use on the port side are painted red and 
marked with two knots. 

The machine-connecting wires are insulated wires for 
connecting the D. E. machine, Pattern A., with the firing- 
key and for general purposes. 

boat's wire-box. 

This box is marked "Wire-Box — Boat's." It contains 
the same articles as "Wire-Box — Ship's," similarly 
marked. 

CONTACT SPAR LEADING-WIRES. 
Pattern B.— Plate V. 

These consist, practically, of three insulated copper wire 
cables which lead, in use, as follows : — 1st. wire, from the 
detonator to one terminal of the battery ; 2nd. wire, from 
the circuit-closer to the second terminal of the battery via 
the safety-break; 3rd. wire, branching in two legs at its 
outer end, from the detonator and the circuit-closer to the 
second terminal of the battery via the hand-firing key 
and the safety-break. 

The safety-break and the hand-firing key are connected 
to their proper leads by wires of convenient length to 
permit placing the battery out of the way when con- 
nected up. 

The safety-break consists of two round, tapering pieces 
of brass each fitted with a score and two small holes in 
the smaller end to which the leading- wire is permanently 
secured. The larger ends, fitted to ship together bayonet 
fashion, can be readily connected or disconnected at 
pleasure. 

Directions for using these wires are given in "Prepara- 
tion of Contact Torpedo." 



SPAK-BANDS. 
Plate IV. 
These, of wrought iron, furnish a ready means of secur- 
ing secondary spars to the ordinary wooden torpedo-spars 
supplied to ships. These bands, with loops on top, are 
secured to the end of the wood spar, 3 feet apart, with 
wood-screws. The inner band has a key-way, to hold the 
secondary spar in place. Care must be taken that the 
loops of both bands are exactly in line. 

SUPPLY-BOX. 

This box, containing tools and small articles required 
in spar-torpedo work, is marked on top, "Torpedo Supply- 
Box." For contents see Box 3 "List of Articles in Out- 
fit supplied from Torpedo Station." 

BOAT-FITTINGS. 

Pattern B. — Plate VI. 

These, for the support and handling of the boat spars, 
consist of bow-fittings, 2 swivel-crutches and 2 heel-rests. 

The heel-rest is an iron crutch bolted to the rail well 
aft. A hinge allows the rest to be laid inboard when not 
in use. 

The swivel-crutch is a square iron collar fitted with a 
shank that turns freely in a bearing firmly bolted to the 
rail, 9 feet abaft the cross-beam. The collar is made in 
two parts, the upper one working on a hinge, and has two 
rollers. 

Bow-fittings consist of a cross-beam with its attach- 
ments. The cross-beam, made of heavy wrought-iron tub- 
ing, is secured across the bow to castings let into the rail. 
On sleeves, at the ends of the cross-beam, are elevating- 
arms free to revolve in a vertical plane. At the outer 
end of each arm a swivelled guide-ring is placed, project- 



9 



ing at right angles to the arm in the direction of the beam 
of the boat. In the lower part of this ring is a roller. 
Connected with the sleeve of each arm is a gear moved 
by a worm on the forward end of a shaft extending aft 
into the boat, an elevating-wheel being keyed to the after 
end of the shaft. 

The worm-shaft is in two lengths joined by a hook- 
coupling interposed near the forward end of the shaft to 
allow the worm sufficient play to engage the gear of the 
elevating-arm during the revolution of the shaft. 

The worm-shaft is allowed a fore-and-aft motion such 
that, when the shaft is forward, the worm is disengaged 
from the gear of the elevating-arm, leaving it unsupported 
and free to drop and, when the shaft is aft, the worm is 
engaged with the gear so that the elevating-arm may be 
controlled by the elevating-wheel. 

The shaft is held aft by a clutch placed just forward of 
the elevating-wheel. The clutch consists of a sleeve, sup- 
ported on trunnions by a bearing bolted to a chock on the 
forward deck of the boat, carrying a yoke-link, loosely 
bolted to two lugs on its forward lower end and a 
detaching-lever, loosely bolted to two lugs on its forward 
upper end. The worm-shaft, passing through this sleeve, 
bears a rigid collar so placed that, when the shaft is aft, 
the collar is close up against the forward end of the sleeve. 
The yoke-link, when swung up, embraces the shaft and 
bears against the forward side of the collar, holding the 
shaft aft, The yoke-link is held up by the detaching- 
lever which is thrown forward between the upper ends of 
the yoke-link, a transverse roller in the detaching-lever, 
with ends projecting on either side, locking the yoke-link 
in place. A pin, passed through eyes worked in the upper 
ends of the yoke-link, prevents accidental tripping of the 
detaching-lever. When this pin is withdrawn and the 



10 



detaching-lever is pulled aft the yoke-link falls and the 
shaft is free to move forward. 

By the worm-shaft and its attachments the elevating- 
arm can be rotated around the cross-beam, held in any 
position in its plane of rotation, or released at any desired 
moment. 

The gear and worm are protected by hoods. 

BOAT SPARS. 
Pattern A. -Plate VII. 

The spar, made of steel, consists of two tubes, 18 and 
15 feet long respectively, one 4 inches and the other 3 J 
inches in diameter, joined together with a telescopic joint. 
The tubes — with a lap of 2 feet — are held together by 
two screws. At the larger end of the spar is an eye-bolt 
for the heel-rope screwed in from the inside, and at 5 feet 
from the smaller end is a hole for reeving the spar 
leading-wires. This constitutes the main spar, which can 
readily be taken apart for stowage by removing the screws. 
To assemble the spar, a feather fits into a score on the end 
of the larger tube, bringing the screw-holes opposite each 
other. Iron spar-clamps are furnished, to facilitate the 
assembling of the spar. 

The two tubes composing each spar are marked by 
similar letters or numbers. 

Note.— Spars must invariably be taken apart after use, joints lubricated, 
and protected by a canvas cover. 

DETONATORS. 
Plate VIII. 
Detonators are cylindrical copper cases, closed at the 
bottom, containing 35 grains of fulminate of mercury, 
primed on top with dry, pulvurulent gun-cotton. 

A plug, made of 1 part of ground glass and 2 parts of 
sulphur, melted together, is cast around the detonator- 



11 

legs: — tinned copper wires, No. 20 A. W. G., 6 inches in 
length, insulated with a double layer of cotton thread 
soaked in paraffine, the outer layer colored red. 

The inner ends of the detonator-legs are bridged by a 
platinum-iridium wire, 90% platinum, 10% iridium, T 3 g 
inch long and 2 mils in diameter, having a resistance of 
.651.03 ohm. 

The plug is inserted in a copper band; dry pulvurulent 
gun-cotton is loosely packed about the bridge and on top 
of the fulminate of mercury and the band is screwed on 
the upper end of the detonator-case, thus closing it. 

Detonators are painted red. They are supplied for use 
with gun-cotton torpedoes. 

DETONATOR BLOCKS. 

Plate VIII. 
Wooden cylinders, with a cover that has a small circu- 
lar motion. Each block holds 8 detonators placed in holes 
around the circumference, the cover locking them in. 
Each block is placed in a covered tin cylinder painted 
red and marked "Dangerous." These blocks will be 
placed in different parts of the ship, never below the 
water-line. (See Ord. Inst.) 

DUMMY DETONATORS. 

These are empty detonator-cases, with a hole bored in 
the bottom, for use in making connections in practice. 
The detonator-legs are not bridged but are cast in the 
plug on the bight. 

Dummy detonators are painted white and the legs are 
insulated with white cotton thread. 

IGNITERS. 

Igniters are cylindrical brass cases, closed at the lower 
end, containing a charge of rifle gun-powder. 



12 



The upper end is closed by inserting a plug precisely 
similar to that used in detonators, except that the igniter- 
legs are insulated with white cotton thread instead of 
red. 

The bridge is primed by twining about it a wisp of 
long-staple, dry gun-cotton. 

Igniters are coated with white shellac. They are sup- 
plied for use with improvised gun-powder torpedoes. 

GUN-POWDER FUZES. 

These are stoat, cylindrical, paper cases, closed at the 
lower end and charged with rifle gun-powder. In the 
center of the charge is placed an igniter the legs of which 
project on either side of a wooden plug which is seized in 
the upper end of the case to close it. 

Igniters are coated with orange shellac. 

A rubber insulator, for preventing short-circuit between 
the splices when the fuze is attached to leading-wires, is 
seized around the upper end of the case. 

Fuzes are supplied for use with improvised gun-powder 
torpedoes. 

BOX CONTAINING GUN-POWDER FUZES AND IGNITERS. 

This is marked with a list of contents. It is packed in 
Box 7, from which it is to be removed, when received 
aboard ship, and stowed in the magazine or ammunition 
room. 

GLASS JARS FOR DRY PRIMERS. 
Pattern B. 

Glass cylindrical jars, fitted with cork covers, each hav- 
ing a capacity for 6 two-inch, or 24 one-half inch blocks of 
gun-cotton. These blocks of dry gun-cotton are tied to- 
gether with boiled tape and have litmus-paper between 



13 



them. They are never to be stowed below, but must be 
placed in different parts of the ship above the water-line. 
Being glass, the jar, without being opened, renders the 
litmus-paper readily discernible. Each jar is placed in a 
wooden case fitted with a sliding cover, painted white, 
and is stencilled with contents, and with precautions. 

The dry primers, as used, are replaced by drying the 
wet blocks removed from the torpedoes in priming them. 

GUN-COTTON DRYING APPARATUS. 
Plate XVIII. 

A steam-drier, for drying wet gun-cotton for use as 
primers, consists of a sheet-iron box containing two remov- 
able galvanized-iron wire baskets in which the blocks to 
be dried are supported, strung on rods. The blocks are 
separated from each other by small iron washers, ^ inch 
thick, also strung on the rods, to permit free circulation of 
the air. A door in the front of the box permits entering 
and withdrawing the baskets. 

In the bottom of the box is a flat of steam-pipe the two 
ends of which, projecting from the side, are screw-threaded 
for ready connection with steam-heating apparatus, or 
with any other convenient source of low-pressure steam. 

A wire-gauze bottom, below the flat of steam-pipe, per- 
mits the entrance of air and serves to keep out dust and 
to prevent undue radiation of heat toward the outside. 

In the top of the box is a ventilating opening, with a 
rotary damper, protected by a hood, and also a hole for 
the introduction of a thermometer. 

CHEMICAL BOX. 

This box is marked on top "Chemical Box." For con- 
tents see Box 16, "List of Articles in Outfit supplied from 



14 



Torpedo Station." For use of contents see "Inspection 
of Gun-Cotton." 



The outfit includes a number of spare washers, spherical 
packings, diaphragms, etc., to supply necessary waste. 



In addition to the articles already mentioned, every 
vessel having a "Ship's and Boat's" spar-torpedo outfit is 
supplied from the Torpedo Station with the following 
articles, to be placed on board at the navy-yards, as per- 
manent fittings; viz.: 

Double-conductor insulated copper wire, incased in 
lead, in such quantity as may be required for permanent 
wires; 2 electric switches; 13 terminal binding-screws. 

PERMANENT WIRES. 
Plate IX. 

In order to do away with the inconvenience of leading 
out lengths of wire from place to place, and to avoid 
injury to the wire, permanent wires are put in place 
when the ship is fitted out. These wires are led from 
terminals conveniently placed for battery connections via 
the electric switches or firing apparatus to the terminals, 
abreast the heels of the torpedo spars. 

Permanent wires should be protected from hostile fire, 
from chafe, wear, and the sun; should never be taut; 
should never be led around sharp angles; metal staples 
should never be used to hold the wires in position, even 
temporarily; no part of the copper wire should be ex- 
posed to the action of salt water; splices should be sol- 
dered and carefully insulated; and the wires should be 
boxed in throughout their lengths. 



15 



ELECTRIC SWITCHES. 
Plate X. 

In connection with permanent wires electric switches 
are used, and are permanently placed in a suitable posi- 
tion before a ship leaves the navy-yard. 

Their object is to connect the firing-battery or the 
firing-key of the D. E. machine with any or all the tor- 
pedoes. The plate represents the switch in position, on 
the starboard side, with the battery off, or the wires from 
the firing-key disconnected from any permanent wire, 
electrically. The switch should be protected from salt 
water and the weather as much as possible. It is thought 
best to inclose it in a box, as nearly water-tight as pos- 
sible, provided with a door which opens in front. 

Note. — Where permanent firing apparatus is furnished, the electric 
switches will not be issued. 

TERMINALS. 

Plate X. 

Terminals are ordinary brass binding-screws secured 

to base-pieces of black walnut which are to be secured 

in position by screws. The figure illustrates the manner 

of making permanent and temporary connections with 

the terminals. The counter-sunk space in the back of 

the base-piece is to be filled with melted wax, after the 

permanent wire has been attached, before securing the 

terminal in place. The binding-screws must be kept 

clean and free from paint. 

ARTICLES OF TORPEDO OUTFIT SUPPLIED AT NAVY-YARDS. 

Ship's Spars. — Such ship-rigged vessels as are now fit- 
ted for spar-torpedoes are supplied with four torpedo- 
spars, fitted two on each side, abreast the foremast and 
mizzenmast. Barque-rigged vessels are supplied with but 
two spars, fitted one abreast the foremast on each side. 



16 



The present regulation spar is of hickory or oak, 45 feet 
long, 8 inches in diameter at the heel, and 6 inches at the 
outer end. It should be of the best material, straight- 
grained, and as nearly as possible a natural-growth pole. 
In working down a larger spar, care should be observed 
to follow the grain of the wood. Yellow oak is considered 
superior for torpedo-spars. Ked oak is too brash. 

The Heel Fittings. (P late XI.) — The thrust-plate is 
placed at about the height of the channels, in accordance 
with the regulations established by the Bureau of Ord- 
nance. Discretion must be used in so placing this as to 
allow the spar to come alongside, so that the torpedo can 
be shipped from the rail or from a port. The elbow of 
the heel-bolt transmits the recoil of the spar to the thrust- 
plate, without injury to the bolt itself. Good results 
have been obtained by using a lashing of 6 turns of Sc- 
inch manilla, in place of the shackle, the elasticity of the 
rope serving to take up a portion of the thrust of the 
spar. Ah excellent plan is to secure the heel of the spar 
to a spare eye-bolt in the channels, as shown in Fig. 2. 

The Spar Fittings. {Plate XII) ~ The most approved 
method of fitting a torpedo-spar with guys and topping- 
lift is shown in the plate. Spans are fitted to the spar on 
which the forward guy and topping-lift travel freely, and 
these spans are rove through lizards to divide the strain 
along the spar and prevent vibrations. The forward guy 
should be single, with as much drift as possible, and long 
enough to let the spar trail aft, after the explosion. The 
forward guy, the pendant of the topping-lift, or that part 
of it secured to the span, the spans and lizards should be 
of galvanized-iron wire rope, f inch in diameter. The 
after guy may be a single part of small manilla rope, say 
3-inch. The forward guy should be led from as near the 
w r ater-line as possible to keep the spar from rising. 



CHAPTER II. 
PEEPAEATIO^ OF TORPEDOES. 

SEKVICE TORPEDO. 
Pattern D.— Plate I. 

Priming the Service Torpedo. — Take the torpedo out 

of its box; remove the screw-cover of the case and take 
out the wet gun-cotton found in the primer-case ; wipe 
the primer-case dry and insert a primer of 16 one-half 
inch blocks, or 4 two-inch blocks of dry gun-cotton. 

The wet gun-cotton removed from the primer-case is to 
be put in one of the empty exercise torpedo cases and 
dried when opportunity offers. 

Wipe the screw-thread carefully and screw down tight 

the cover on its washer, taking care not to cut it, using 

the open-end wrench provided for the purpose in the 

supply box. It is absolutely necessary that this case be 

closed water-tight. 

Note. — It is not advisable to prime torpedoes for a much longer time 
before using than the exigencies of the service require, although experi- 
ments at the Torpedo Station show that service gun-cotton torpedoes 
may remain primed for three months, under service conditions, and yet 
be relied upon to explode. 

Testing the Detonator. — Select a detonator, brighten 
the ends of its legs and attach them to leading-wires. Put 
the detonator in a safe place, connect the leading-wires to 
the terminals of the testing-magneto and turn the crank. 
Rattling of the armature will indicate continuity of the 
circuit and is presumptive evidence that the detonator is 



18 



good. The wires from the detonator can be taken to the 
binding-posts T, T of the firing-key of the A machine and 
tested, a deflection of the needle furnishing proof of con- 
tinuity [Plate XVI); or they can be taken to the termi- 
nals of the C machine which will indicate continuity by 
the striking of its gong. (Plate XVI). 

Splicing on the Detonator. (Plates I and II) — The 

detonator should now be spliced to the spar leading-wires. 
In splicing on the detonator, so arrange the length of wire 
that the spherical rubber packing can be placed on the 
leading-wires five inches from the bottom of the detonator- 
case, the splices being between the detonator and the 
packing. Remove the water-cap from the screw-cover 
of the case. Strip the braiding and rubber tape from the 
leading-wires for at least six inches from their ends and 
put on a neat whipping, which shall be outside the pack- 
ing. 

Reeve the ends of the leading-wires through the water- 
cap and rubber packing. Remove so much of the insula- 
tion as may be necessary, for making the splice, from 
the leading-wires and from the legs of the detonator; 
brighten the wires and place the insulation of the 
detonator-legs alongside that of the leading-wires, with 
the ends of the insulation flush, and expend the bare 
detonator-legs in turns at right angles around the leading- 
wires. Turn the ends of the leading-wires back over the 
splices, and trim off the ends. One splice should be one- 
half inch from the detonator and the other one inch from 
the packing. Insulate from metallic contact the splice 
nearest the packing with twine and pass several turns 
about the wires until the detonator is reached, where the 
end of the twine is secured. A strip of okonite tape can 
be used, taking care that the insulation is not to bulky. 
(See sample splice in supply-box). 



19 



Fuzing the Service Torpedo. (Plate 7. )— Having lined 

the holes of the dry blocks with the rectifier, to be found 
in the supply box, enter the detonator through the hole 
in the cover and push it in until the packing is seated ; 
screw up the water-cap hand-tight. Provide the spindle, 
to be found in Box 53, and secure it to the torpedo-case. 

Shipping the Secondary Spar. (Ships.)— Enter the 

end of the secondary spar in the loop of the outer band, 
and push in until the key-way is abreast the slot in the 
loop of the inner band; then put in the key and stop it 
in. 

Shipping the Service Torpedo. (Ships.)— Insert the 

stem of the spindle in the outer end of the secondary spar 
and push it home as far as the shoulder. Put in the 
torpedo-pin and stop it in. 

To prevent the strain of towing from starting the splice, 
turn a cuckold' s-neck in the spar leading-wires, and lash 
it to the secondary spar or to the spindle, clear of the 
torpedo-case. The spar leading-wires should then be led 
in along the ship's spar, abaft the topping lift, and stop- 
ped to it at intervals of about four feet. 

Fuzing and Shipping the Service Torpedo, and Ship- 
ping the Secondary Spar. (Boat's.) Pattern B. Boat- 
Fittings.— See that the elevating-arm points aft. Rig 
in the main spar clear of the guide-ring. Point the inner 
end of the secondary spar through the guide-ring, the 
outer end resting on the rail. Reeve the leading-wires 
through the guide-ring from forward aft, and fuze the 
torpedo. Then ship the torpedo in the secondary spar, 
securing it by the torpedo-pin, which must be stopped in. 
Turn a cuckold's-neck in the leading-wires and stop it to 
the secondary spar or to the spindle, clear of the torpedo- 
case. Slue the secondary spar in position, butt aft. Re- 
verse the elevating-arm, by revolving it downward, until 



20 



the guide-ring is in line with the swivel-crutch and heel- 
rest, carefully tending the inner end of the secondary spar 
by a line bent on. Ship the secondary spar in the main 
spar, by rigging the latter out or in, and secure it by a 
toggle, which must be stopped in. 

The boat spar leading-wires are rove through the main 
spar. To facilitate this, a reeving-line and weight, found 
in the supply-box, is rove through the main spar, before 
the secondary spar is shipped; one end of the line is 
secured to the heel-bolt, and the other around the spar 
abreast the wire-hole. 

When the secondary spar is shipped, bend the end of 
the leading-wires to the reeving-line, rig out the torpedo 
until the heel of the spar is conveniently placed for haul- 
ing on the after end of the reeving-line, and reeve the 
leading-wires through the spar, being careful to avoid 
chafing the insulation. 

When the contact spar leading-wires are used they 
must be rove through the main spar, from aft forward, 
before fuzing the torpedo. 

The spar leading- wires from the heel of the ship's spar 
are taken to the terminals abreast the heel of the spar; 
from the heel of the boat's spar they are taken directly 
to the C machine, or to the firing-battery, a hand-firing 
key being interposed when the battery is used. [See 
Plate XV.) 

No connection, however, is to be made with terminal, 
machine, or battery, until the torpedo is submerged and 
at the proper distance from the side of the ship or boat. 

Testing the Circuit from Ships. — After the torpedo is 

submerged the circuit may be tested, to do which connect 
the spar leading-wires to their proper terminals and con- 
nect the binding-screws T, T, of the firing-key, to the 
proper permanent wires. Place the firing-key as directed 



21 



for testing the detonator, ship the crank of the D. E. 
machine, turn rapidly with the sun, and press the key T 
of the firing-key. A deflection of the compass needle will 
indicate that the circuit is complete. (See Plate XVI.) 
Or, the testing-magneto may be used to test the circuit. 

The firing-battery must not be used to test the circuit. 

To Fire. — Make connections with the firing-battery, 
or with the A machine (Plate IX). When using the bat- 
tery, close the hand-firing key at the moment it is desired 
to fire. When using the A machine, press the key F of 
the firing-key, and keep it down; turn the crank of the 
machine rapidly, and at the instant it is desired to fire, 
press firmly the key T of the firing-key (the key F being 
already down). 

The Service Torpedo must be immersed 10 feet, and 
from ships may be safely exploded at 35 feet from the 
side. 

To Test the Circuit from Boats.— The spar leading- 
wires are brought directly to the machine, (See Plate 
XVI), but not connected until the torpedo is submerged, 
when the circuit may be tested by connecting it to the 
binding-screws of the C machine, turning the crank of the 
machine and pressing the key T, as for testing the deto- 
nator. Or, the testing-magneto may be used to test the 
circuit. 

The firing-battery must not be used to test the circuit. 

To Fire. — Make connection with the battery (Plate 
XV), or with the C machine (Plate XVI.) When using 
the battery, close the hand-firing key at the desired in- 
stant. When using the C machine, manipulate the keys 
as directed for the firing-key of the A machine. 

The Service Torpedo must be immersed not less than 
10 feet, and may be safely exploded at a horizontal dis- 
tance of 22 feet from the boat. 



22 



EXERCISE TORPEDO. 
Pattern D. — Plate II. 

Priming the Exercise Torpedo. — Remove the trans- 
portation thumb-screw and loosen the thumb-screw on the 
lug of the hinge. Throw back the cover, replace the 
second wet block of gun-cotton from the top with a dry 
2-inch block, or four J-inch blocks, and put the cover back 
in place ; insert the spindle, to be found in box 53, through 
the loops on one side and screw down taut against its 
shoulder; screw down also the thumb-screw on the lug of 
the hinge. It is absolutely necessary that this case be 
closed water-tight. 

The wet gun-cotton removed is to be placed in one of 
the empty exercise torpedo-cases, to be dried when oppor- 
tunity offers. 

Note. — Do not allow the dry primer to remain in the exercise torpedo 
any considerable length of time before use, as it may absorb enough 
moisture to prevent detonation. 

The detonator is tested and spliced, and the torpedo 
fuzed in the same manner as directed for the Service 
Torpedo. 

Shipping the Exercise Torpedo.— To be done in the 

same manner as prescribed for the Service Torpedo. 

The Exercise Torpedo may be used from either a boat's 
or ship's spar. It may be safely exploded at an immer- 
sion of 5 feet, and a horizontal distance of 20 feet. 

PREPARATION OF THE CONTACT TORPEDO. 
Pattern D. — Plate V. 

To Convert a Service Torpedo into a Contact Torpedo. 

— Attach a circuit-closer, Pattern B, to the frame on the 
lower head of the torpedo by screws through the lugs. 

Testing the Circnit-Closer. — Remove the water-cap 
and spherical rubber packing from the side of the circuit- 



23 



closer; remove its screw-cover; take out the inner plun- 
ger. Remove the braid for a few inches from the longer 
leg (insulated double-conductor cable) at the outer end of 
the contact spar leading-wires, whipping the braid. Re- 
move the rubber tape from the conductors, and pass them 
through the water-cap and packing and through the cylin- 
der of the circuit-closer. Remove the insulation for one 
inch, brighten and lay up the naked wires and connect 
them to the binding-posts of the circuit-closer, taking care 
that the bare ends do not project far beyond the binding- 
posts. Seat the inner plunger, hauling on the wires at the 
same time, so as not to leave any slack wire in the cylinder. 
Set down the water-cap on the packing in the side of the 
circuit-closer. Replace the diaphragm, friction-plate and 
screw-cover. Remove the insulation for one inch from 
the shorter legs at the outer end of the leading-wires, and 
bend the naked wires together temporarily. Connect the 
inner ends of the leading-wires with the terminals of the 
testing-magneto, or of the C machine. Close the safety- 
break. Remove the safety-pin from the circuit-closer and 
press down the contact-arms. Under these circumstances 
a test with the testing-magneto, or with the C machine 
should show continuity. Release the contact-arms and 
put in the safety-pin. A test should now show no con- 
tinuity. After this test the safety-pin must not be re- 
moved until just before submerging the torpedo prior to 
firing. 

It is absolutely necessary that the circuit-closer be closed 
ivater-tight. 

Priming tile Contact Torpedo. — Proceed as in priming 
the Service Torpedo. 

Fnzing and Shipping the Contact Torpedo, and Ship- 
ping the Secondary Spar. — Proceed as with the Service 
Torpedo, except that the contact spar leading-wires must 



24 



be rove through the main spar, from aft forward, before 
fuzing the torpedo. The detonator must be spliced to 
the short legs of the leading-wires. 

To Test the Circuit. — The torpedo having been sub- 
merged, connect the inner ends of the leading-wires to 
the testing-magneto, or to the C machine. Close the 
safety-break and the hand-firing key and test. Under 
these circumstances continuity should be found. 

To Fire at Will. — Connect to the firing-battery, close 
the safety-break and, at the desired moment, close the 
hand-firing key. 

To Fire Oil Contact. — Connect to the firing-battery. 
Close the safety-break. When contact is made the 
contact-arms will be forced in, and the torpedo will ex- 
plode. 

Note. — The safety-break should be habitually left open, being closed 
only just before it is desired to put the circuit in condition to fire by 
closing either one of the two remaining breaks — that in the hand-firing 
key, when firing at will, or that in the circuit-closer, when firing on con- 
tact. 

IMPROVISED TORPEDOES. 

Torpedoes may be readily improvised from kegs or 
casks pitched outside. The fuze should be put in place 
before filling with powder, in order that it may be near 
the center of the charge. The spar leading-wires pass 
out through the close fitting scores in the bung. The 
latter, after being secured in its place, should be pitched 
over thoroughly, and weight added to the whole, in order 
that it may be readily immersed. For exercise torpedoes, 
bottles, oil-cans, etc., may be used. 

An excellent composition for rendering the bung and 
the entrance of the leading-wires water-tight is made by 
melting together 8 parts of pitch, 1 of beeswax and 1 of 
tallow. It is to be applied while fluid. 



25 



In order to burn all of the powder in the torpedo, a 
spindle, to contain the fuze, should be made on board of 
wood, following the general form of spindle in a gun- 
powder torpedo, and using a wrapping of cotton cloth, 
bunting, or paper, to prevent the powder passing through 
the flame-holes and choking up the spindle. 

Splicing on the Fuze. — To splice the fuze to the spar 
leading-wires so arrange the length of wire that the fuze 
will be entered in the spindle, reaching well into the 
torpedo-case when the entrance for the wires is closed. 
The leading-wires must be stripped of covering exterior 
to the insulation, to a distance extending to just outside 
the entrance. At this point the outer wrapping on the 
wires should be secured by a good whipping. If the outer 
wrapping on the wire is admitted inside, it will, after a 
time, act so as to introduce water to the charge. 

To make the splices, strip the insulation from the 
leading-wires for about an inch, and brighten them. 
Brighten the fuze-legs and twist them around the leading- 
wires in a manner similar to that employed in the Service 
Torpedo, arranging the splices, however, so that they 
shall be at equal distances from the top of the fuze. Cut 
off extra ends and lay the splices in the scores of the fuze- 
plug; turn the insulator down over them, and secure it 
with the insulator fastener. (See sample splice in supply- 
box). 

USE OF THE PERMANENT WIRES AND ELECTRIC SWITCHES. 

Connecting. {Plate IX.) — The connections with the 
firing-battery are as follows: — one wire from each switch 
is connected to one battery terminal, and the common- 
return wire, with the hand-firing key interposed, is con- 
nected to the other battery terminal. 

The connections with the firing-key of the A machine 



26 



are as follows: — one wire from each switch is connected 
to one binding-post, marked T, of the firing-key, and the 
common-return wire is connected to the other binding- 
post of the firing-key, also marked T. 

When electric switches are used an intelligent and care- 
ful person must be stationed at each switch, the index of 
which must be kept pointing toward "Battery off; con- 
nection through," except when it is desired to prepare 
the circuit for firing any torpedo, when the index must 
be turned so as to point toward the torpedo which is 
about to be fired. 

The circuit for firing any single torpedo may thus be 
arranged; or, by moving the index to point toward "Bat- 
tery on both" the circuits will be prepared for firing the 
two attached to that switch. 

By a proper manipulation of the switches the circuits 
may be prepared so that any one, two, or three, or all 
four of the torpedoes may be fired simultaneously. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that the electric 
switch is only a commutator for establishing the paths of 
the currents and that it must not be used as a firing-key. 



CHAPTER III. 
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS. 

FIRING-BATTERIES. 

Voltaic batteries are supplied for firing torpedoes from 
ships and boats. A modification of the Le Clanche' cell 
has been adopted and is now issued from the Torpedo 
Station. One ship's firing-battery of six cells is supplied 
to such ships as are fitted with spars. For use in boats 
and elsewhere, as may be necessary, two boat's firing- 
batteries of four cells each, with two spare cells for each 
battery, are supplied. When the guns are to be fired by 
electricity an additional firing-battery will be furnished 
for the purpose. 

Note, — Ships having only one torpedo launch will be supplied with but 
one boat's battery. 

THE CELL. 
Plate XIII. 
The positive element is zinc in the shape of a cylinder 
open at both ends. Around the zinc is molded a cover- 
ing of okonite, which forms the jar of the cell. A lug 
from the zinc cylinder projects up through the okonite 
covering and has soldered to it the brass negative termi- 
nal of the cell. The negative element is a thin plate of 
platinum enclosed in a cylindrical muslin bag filled with 
crashed carbon. The bottom of the bag is closed by a 
flat, circular piece of ebonite. The top of the bag is 
seized to a plug of ebonite, through which passes a plat- 
inum wire, soldered to the platinum plate and to the 
brass positive terminal in the top. The ebonite plug is 
scored to take a rubber cover, the outer edge of which 



28 



fits in a groove cut around the inside of the okonite 
cylinder above the top of the zinc, preventing loss of the 
liquid by splashing, or by evaporation. A hole in the 
cover permits the entrance of air, which is necessary for 
the proper operation of the cell. A rubber ring around 
the lower end of the negative element prevents its con- 
tact with the zinc. The liquid is a nearly saturated solu- 
tion of sal-ammoniac (ammonium chloride). This cell 
polarizes rapidly on a short-circuit, but recovers in a few 
hours if left on open circuit. 

FIEING-BATTEEY FOE SHIPS. 

The ship's firing-battery consists of six cells inclosed 
in a box. The cells are joined up in series. The termi- 
nals are at one end of the box, on top, and are covered 
by a lid hinged to the cover of the box. 

FIBING-BATTEEY FOE BOATS. 

This pattern is similar to the ship's battery, except 
that four cells only are inclosed in its box. 

BATTEEY TESTEE. 
Plate XIV. 
This consists of a small wooden case inclosing a resist- 
ance-coil and a fuze-bridge. One end of the coil is con- 
nected to a brass spring and the other to one end of the 
fuze-bridge; the other end of the fuze-bridge is con- 
nected to a brass contact-piece opposite a spring at the 
other end of the case. When the tester is laid over the 
terminals of the battery and pressed down, contact is 
made between the contact-piece and spring, and a circuit 
established through the resistance-coil and bridge. If 
the battery is in good condition the bridge will be seen 
to redden, through a glass plate in the top of the case. 
The resistance of the coil in the tester for the ship's bat- 



29 



tery is 6.5 ohms and in the tester for the boat's battery 
it is 4 ohms. 

Should the fine wire bridge accidentally be broken, the 
plug must be removed and a new one inserted. A num- 
ber of plugs, with bridges, are supplied for this purpose. 

MANAGEMENT AND CARE OF FIRING-BATTERIES. 

To Prepare the Liquid. — Make a saturated solution 
of sal-ammoniac with rain or distilled water. The solu- 
tion will be hastened by crushing the crystals of sal- 
ammoniac and heating the water. Allow the solution to 
cool and settle, and decant it carefully. Then add one- 
tenth its volume of distilled or rain water. 

One pound of sal-ammoniac to four pints of water will 
give the proper degree of saturation. 

To Fill the Cells. — Press down the edge of the rubber 
cover at one point and, by inserting a screw-driver at 
this point, pry up the cover, and lift its edge all around. 
Introduce the liquid through a glass funnel, being care- 
ful to spill none of it on the connections, and fill the jars 
to within half an inch of the top. After twenty-four 
hours replenish the liquid, filling the jars to the same 
point as before, and replace the rubber cover. 

The ship's battery should be kept in a locker provided 
for it on the berth-deck, and should be kept connected 
with the wires leading to the firing-apparatus on the 
spar-deck. 

Neither the ship's nor the boat's firing-batteries are to 
be tested too frequently, nor must the duration of a test 
be longer than is necessary. The batteries, if kept sta- 
tionary in a proper locker, need be tested but once 
weekly. The boat's battery must be tested before it is 
sent into the boat, and again after it is put in place in 
the boat. 



30 



The liquid should last from six to twelve months, ac- 
cording to the work done by the battery. Should the 
battery fail to show the proper test, search for bad or 
corroded connections. Test each cell separately, by 
touching the legs of a fuze-bridge directly to the poles of 
the cell. A single cell should redden the fuze-bridge 
when no other resistance is interposed. Faulty cells 
must be taken out, emptied and supplied with fresh liquid. 

The batteries must be examined daily. The connec- 
tions must be kept clean and free from salts and, to 
secure this, the liquid must not be allowed to come in 
contact with them. Corroded connections can be cleaned 
with emery cloth, or, if very badly corroded, they may 
be scraped with the back of a knife-blade. 

Boat's batteries must be habitually examined after use 
in boats and any liquid that may have splashed about 
them be carefully wiped off. 

It sometimes happens that, from long use and impov- 
erishment of the liquid, crystals of zinc-ammonium- 
chloride form in the cell, attaching themselves to the 
muslin bag and to the zinc. Sometimes these crystals 
build across from the bag to the zinc and prevent the 
ready removal of the negative element. When this oc- 
curs no effort should be made to remove it by force, for 
such a proceeding is liable to brake the platinum wire, 
or tear the thin platinum plate. To remove the negative 
element, take off the rubber cover and pour out the 
liquid, which should not be used again. Fill the cell 
with warm water and allow it to stand, full of water, for 
several hours. The crystals are but slightly soluble, but 
prolonged soaking will detach them sufficiently to permit 
the removal of the negative element. When this can be 
done the crystals are to be carefully picked off the mus- 
lin and scraped off the zinc. If such crystals are found 



31 



in a cell, at any time, they must at once be removed and 
the liquid renewed. 

These batteries require but little care, but this little 
they must have. Systematic attention to them will be 
well repaid by their good performance and their constant 
readiness for use. 

Before the firing-batteries are returned into store at 
the end of the cruise, or before transportation to distant 
points, the negative elements must be removed from the 
cells, thoroughly soaked in fresh water and dried. The 
jars must be washed out and drained and all metal parts 
wiped perfectly dry. 

HAND-ETKING KEY. 
Pattern B. — Plate XV. 

This consists of two pieces of hickory, shaped to fit the 
hand, and joined together at the smaller end. Each piece 
is fitted with a brass contact stud projecting from its 
inner face at a short distance from the larger end. The 
natural spring of the wood keeps the two parts separated 
and maintains, normally, a break between the studs. A 
hole, bored longitudinally in each part, permits the en- 
trance of a leading-wire, the bared end of which is secured 
by a screw to the contact stud. A rubber cot is seized 
over the key to prevent the closing of the circuit by sea- 
water. A safety-pin, attached to the key by a laniard, is 
habitually kept between the two parts to prevent acci- 
dental closing. 

The hand-firing key, introduced in an electrical circuit, 
provides a break that can be closed at will. 

THE TESTING-MAGNETO. 

This is a small magneto-electric machine, sending al- 
ternating currents into the external circuit. The circuit 



32 



from the magneto includes an electro-magnet with a 
vibrating armature. 

The magneto will actuate this armature vigorously as 
a sounder, or rattler, through about 1000 ohms resistance. 
It may be used for testing the continuity of torpedo and 
other circuits, or for testing the insulation of the per- 
manent and other leading-wires. 

For Testing Continuity. — The poles of the magneto 
are connected with the ends of the circuit to be tested 
and the crank turned. If the armature rattles it indicates 
a continuous circuit. The failure of the armature to rat- 
tle will show a break in the circuit. 

For Testing the Insulation of the Permanent Wires — 

Connect one pole of the magneto with the wire to be 
tested and the other pole to earth; or, if a cross with 
some other wire is suspected, the other pole is connected 
with that wire. If the armature rattles vigorously when 
the crank is turned, a leak of less than about 1000 ohms 
resistance is indicated; if not, the insulation resistance of 
the wire is about 1000 ohms. 

To Test the Insulation of a Leading- Wire. — Attach 

one end of it to one pole of the magneto, the other pole 
of which is connected by a short length of wire to an 
earth-plate placed in a tub of sea-water. Keeping the two 
ends of the wire to be tested out and dry, pay it into the 
tub gradually, turning the crank of the magneto mean- 
while. Should there be a fault in the insulation, its ex- 
istance and locality will be indicated by rattling of the 
armature when it reaches the water. 

faemee's dynamo electeic machine, patteen a, and 

fieing-key. 
Plate XVI. 
For a full description of the electric machine, see "A 



33 



Lecture on Galvanic Batteries, Part III" published by the 
Bureau of Ordnance, 1875. 

In general, pattern A may be considered as having an 
electro-motive force of sixteen to eighteen volts and a 
resistance of five ohms and to be capable of firing from 
twenty to twenty-five detonators arranged in series, or 
five to six arranged in as many branch circuits, or a sin- 
gle detonator through 1^ miles of cable such as is now 
issued, or through twenty ohms resistance. 

It is unnecessary to give more than three or four turns 
of the crank in order to generate sufficient current to fire; 
but these revolutions must be with the sun and continuous 
up to and including the moment of firing. In general, 
as more work is required from the machine, greater speed 
and longer time will be necessary to get the machine up 
to its maximum power; this time, however, is very limited 
and the rapid turning of the crank for half a minute may 
be considered sufficient. With a single detonator in cir- 
cuit and a moderate amount of leading-wire, one-quarter 
of a turn of the crank will usually be sufficient to fire. 

Testing the Machine. — To test the machine, connect 
the binding-screws by a piece of metal, ship the crank 
and turn it with the sun. If it turn hard the machine is 
in good order; if it turn as easily as before the binding- 
screws were connected the machine is out of order. 

In case the machine is out of order it should be re- 
moved from the outer case and the cause sought out and 
remedied. There are no delicate parts or mechanism and 
the machine may be examined without fear of injury. 

The only faults which have been observed are the col- 
lecting of dirt between the shells of the commutator and 
the commutator springs, want of contact between them 
and the collecting of metallic dust between the two shells 
of the commutator. Each of these faults may be remedied 



34 



in a moment. It is proper to say that these fanlts have 
never occnred when the machines were turned by hand 
and seldom when turned by power at a high rate of 
speed. 

Some of the wire connections inside the machine might 
be severed by the breaking of a soldered joint, of which 
there are five. A fault of this kind would be readily 
found and easily remedied. In soldering electrical con- 
nections, resin, and not acid, should be used. 

The effect of any of these faults is to cause a break in 
the continuity of the electrical circuit of the machine. 
This circuit is as follows : starting from one binding-screw, 
a wire leads to the field-of-force coils, or electro-magnet 
coils, traverses them and passes to one of the commutator 
springs; thence to one shell of the commutator; thence 
to the coil around the armature, through this coil to the 
other shell of the commutator; thence to the other com- 
mutator spring and, by a wire, to the second binding-screw, 
thus forming a complete circuit, when the binding-screws 
are joined together. If they are left unconnected, there 
is no closed circuit, no current is generated and the arma- 
ture, therefore, turns easily. When the circuit is closed 
by connecting the terminals by a conductor of not too 
great resistance, the current generated excites the electro- 
magnets and this leads, in turn, to the generation of a 
stronger current until a maximum is reached depending 
on the resistance of the circuit and the speed with which 
the crank is turned. The electrical energy thus developed 
when the circuit is closed requires, of course, that extra 
work should be done to turn the crank. When the circuit 
is broken, inside or outside of the machine, it is necessary 
to overcome only the friction of the machine and the 
armature, therefore, turns easily. 

The Purpose of the Firing-Key. {Plate XVI.)— The 



35 



full power of the electro-magnets of the D. E. machine 
will be reached soonest and will be greatest when the 
two binding-screws are joined by a piece of metal of 
practically no resistance as, for instance, a short wire. 
If this short-circuit is kept closed until the moment of 
firing and is at that moment replaced by the circuit con- 
taining the detonator, we will have the machine working 
with its magnets fully excited in the circuit in which 
useful work is to be clone. In order to accomplish this 
change of circuit, without allowing the magnetism of the 
machine to fall, the second circuit must be completed be- 
fore the first is broken. If we had no more convenient 
method we could take advantage of this property of the 
machine by connecting the two ends of the fuze-circuit 
to the two binding-screws of the machine, and laying a 
piece of metal across the two binding-screws. When the 
crank is turned a strong current is generated, the mag- 
nets reach their full strength and, on removing the piece 
of metal, the machine is thrown upon the fuze-circuit with 
its magnets strongly excited, generating sufficient current 
to fire the detonator. 

The firing-key furnishes a convenient method for 
making this change of circuit and also a means for test- 
ing the continuity of the fuze-circuit at any time before 
firing. When the firing-key is connected to the machine 
by wires between the binding-screws of the latter and 
those marked B, B, of the former and the binding- 
screws, marked T, T, of the former, are joined by a wire, 
there are three circuits which may be closed or broken 
by manipulation of the keys T and F of the firing-key. 
{Plate XVI.) 

Tlie Short- Circuit. — The current follows the path 
shown in Fig. 1. 

The Test-Circuit. — When the key T is pressed, the 



36 



short-circuit is broken and the current follows the path 
shown in Fig. 2. 

The Firing-Circuit. — When the keys F and T are 
pressed, the current follows the path shown in Fig. 3. 

To Test the Firing-Key. — Connect as above and place 
the firing-key about ten or twelve feet from the machine, 
and so that the compass-needle points in the direction of 
the length of the box ; ship the crank and turn it rapidly ; 
if it turn hard the short-circuit is in good condition ; then 
press the key T ; if the crank turn easily and the compass- 
needle be deflected, the testrcircuit is complete ; then press 
the key F (the key T being already doivn) ; if the crank 
turn hard and the needle be no longer deflected, the firing- 
circuit is complete. 

farmer's dynamo-electric machine. 
Pattern C.- Plate XVI. 

This machine, intended for use in boats, has less power 
than the large machine, and may generally be considered 
as having an electro-motive force of eight volts, and a 
resistance of four ohms, and to be capable of firing eight 
to ten detonators in series, or two to three arranged in 
as many branches, or a single detonator through 1500 
feet of such cable as is now issued. 

This pattern combines within itself the firing and test- 
ing apparatus, — that is, the firing-key is permanently 
connected to the machine and the binding-screws of the 
C machine occupy a position analogous to that of the 
binding-screws T, T, of the firing-key. 

To Test the Machine. — Ship the crank and turn it 
rapidly with the sun ; if it turn somewhat hard the short- 
circuit is complete; press the key T; the crank should 
turn with ease; connect the binding-screws by a short 
wire; turn the crank as before and press the key T; if 



37 



the crank turn easier and a small bell be heard to strike 
inside, the test-circuit is complete. Continue turning the 
crank, press the key F and then the key T ; if it continue 
to turn somewhat hard, and the bell does not sound, the 
firing-circuit is complete. The difference of force neces- 
sary to turn the crank during the several tests is not so 
apparent as with the larger machine. If any of the tests 
fail the machine should be taken from its case and the 
fault treated as with the larger machines. 

WIRES. 

Insulation. — Insulation is for the purpose of confining 
the electric current to the path we wish it to take and 
should be carefully looked after at all points not covered 
by the rubber or other permanent insulating matter. 
Faults in the insulation of the wires leading from the 
testing or firing apparatus to the torpedo may be so sit- 
uated as to cause, in the former case, false tests and, in 
the latter, a sufficient weakening of the current through 
the detonator to prevent its firing; or, they may be so 
situated as to cause accidental explosion of the torpedo. 
The insulation of the wires, as well as that of the testing 
or firing apparatus, must therefore be carefully preserved. 

In order to preserve good insulation, all binding-screws 
should be kept clean and dry. Rain-water has little effect, 
but salt-water is bad. Wires which make short angles 
should be protected from chafe and all splices should be 
very carefully insulated by rubber tubing. 

Particular care must be taken to prevent metallic con- 
tact of the two legs of the detonator. Any such contact 
at that point would not be detected by testing and would 
be fatal to success. 

Splicing Wires. — Remove the jute braiding and rub- 
ber tape from the two ends to be spliced for such a dis- 



38 



tance as to be clear of the rubber tubing used to insulate 
the splices and whip the braiding. Bare the conductors 
of the two wires for about an inch and a half, lay them 
up and brighten them. Slip the piece of rubber tubing 
over the end of one of the wires. Unite the wires by a 
square-knot or sheet-bend, soldering the splice if it is to 
be permanent. Slip the rubber tubing over the splice so 
that its ends will overlap the rubber insulation of the 
wires and pass a snug seizing around each end of it. 

If the splice is to be permanent a better junction may 
be made as follows: Prepare the wires as before, bend 
up slightly the two ends, lay them side by side, and bind 
them tightly together with a whipping of fine wire ; then 
turn the ends back on the splice and solder the whole 
together. Another good joint may be made as follows: 
Prepare the wires, but allow a greater length; lay them 
together and twist each about the other at right angles 
and in opposite directions; then solder all together. 

In all cases trim the splices so that there shall be no 
projecting wires to cut through the insulation. 

Continuity. — It is possible that a wire may be cut or 
broken at some point where such cut or break cannot be 
seen. If there be any reason to suspect such a break, 
the continuity of that wire may be readily tested by con- 
necting it to the testing-magneto, using leading-wires 
known to be good, and proceeding as in other testing. 



CHAPTER IV. 

GUN-COTTON. -HOW PACKED. -STOW- 
AGE. - CAKE. - INSPECTION 
AND DETING. 

PACKING AND STOWAGE OF WET GUN-COTTON. 

Each Service Torpedo, completely filled with wet gun- 
cotton, is packed in a rough box for transportation and 
stowage. The Exercise Torpedoes, ten filled with wet 
gun-cotton and two empty, are packed six in a box. 

Each filled torpedo has attached to its case a tag on 
which is marked the gross weight of the torpedo in pounds 
and ounces, the initials of the Superintendent of the Gun- 
cotton Factory and the factory number of the charge 
from which the contained gun-cotton is taken. 

When received on board ship the cover on which the 
address is marked is to be reversed. The torpedoes are 
then stowed in the magazine in a manner similar to that 
now employed in stowing shells. 

MARKS ON BOXES. 



PAT. D. TORPEDO, 
SERVICE. 

= ....LBS. DRY G. C. 

[Factory No. of 
Charge.) 



PAT. D. TORPEDOES, 
EXERCISE. 

= ....LBS. DRY G. C. 

(Factory No. of 
Charge.) 



PACKING AND STOWAGE OF DRY GUN-COTTON. 

The glass jars for dry primers, filled with dry gun- 
cotton, are put in wooden cases, painted white, fitted 



40 



with sliding covers as described on p. 13. ' The cases are 
marked "dry gun-cotton primers, not to go below." 
They are packed in a rough box for transportation. 

When received on board ship the cases containing the 
jars are placed in different parts of the ship, but are never 
to be stowed below the water-line. 

On account of insurance restrictions imposed on freight 
companies it is often impracticable to ship gun-cotton in 
its dry state. When this is the case the gun-cotton 
primers are issued wet and are packed in the spare ex- 
ercise torpedo cases from which, on receipt aboard ship, 
they are to be removed and dried and then stowed in the 
glass jars for dry primers. 



A Torpedo Outfit, consisting of 24 Service, Pattern D. 
Torpedoes, 12 Exercise (10 filled, 2 empty), Pattern D. 
Torpedoes and 4 jars of dry gun-cotton for primers will 
contain, approximately, the following amount of gun- 
cotton : — 

WET GUN-COTTON. 

24 Service Pattern D, 1 f 1296 ^ch blocks; or 1200] 
m , >=i 2-inch blocks and 384 }-wet=818. libs. dry. 
Torpedoes J [ ^-inch blocks J 

12 Exercise (10 full, 2\ f 60 2-inch blocks; or 50 "] 
empty) Pattern D, J* — <j 2-inch blocks and 40 >wet= 37.9 lbs. dry. 
Torpedoes J [ %-inch blocks J 

"] f 1356 2-inch blocks; or 1250 ] 
Total wet gun-cotton ^ — ^ 2-inch blocks and 424 }► wet— 856 lbs. dry. 
J [ j^-inch blocks J 

DEY PKIMEES. 

6eachof| 16 ^- inch T b ^ ck f'} = { 96 K-inch blocks ; > d 15 . 2lbs . dry . 
( or 4 2-mch blocks i t or 24 2-mch blocks > J 

Total equivalent of dry gun-cotton in outfit 871.2 lbs. dry. 

The wet charge of a torpedo, Pattern D ? is composed 
of blocks two inches thick. The primer charge is com- 



41 



posed of blocks \ inch thick, if there be any on hand; 
otherwise, of blocks 2 inches thick. 

The 2-inch block contains 10.1 oz. and the i^-inch block 
2.5 -|- oz. of dry gun-cotton. 

CAEE OF GUN-COTTON AND DETONATORS. 

The Gim-Cotton Magazine must not be located near 
the boilers or engines, nor where the temperature of the 
magazine will equal 105° F. for any great length of time. 
The magazine should be aired frequently. Avoid as 
much as possible exposing any box or case containing 
gun-cotton, dry or wet, to the direct rays of the sun for 
any length of time, as the temperature inside the box can, 
in this way, be raised to a point considerably above that 
of the open air and this temperature will be maintained 
for a considerable time after the exposure. 

The diurnal changes of temperature will not affect 
gun-cotton, wet or dry, provided that the cases or boxes 
containing the gun-cotton are not exposed to the sun. 

The detonating charges of dry gun-cotton are desig- 
nated "primers," and the fulminate of mercury igniter as 
the "detonator." 

The primers of dry gun-cotton supplied to each ship 
are packed in glass jars with tight covers to exclude 
moisture. Strips of blue litmus-paper are placed between 
the blocks of dry gun-cotton. 

The glass jars will be kept in their wooden cases. The 
jars and cases are a part of the permanent outfit and must 
be cared for and returned. Dry gun-cotton is never to be 
stowed below the water-line, but it may be carried under 
any deck above the water-line, care being taken that the 
glass jars, in their wooden cases, are not within 10 feet of 
each other, nor in the vicinity of the galley or other fires, 
nor in the immediate vicinity of the guns of the battery. 



42 



In removing from their cases the glass jars holding the 
dry gun-cotton never expose them to the sun, as the glass 
may act as a lens and cause the ignition of the gun- 
cotton. 

All other primers will be furnished wet, and packed in 
the torpedo cases. 

As the stock of dry primers becomes reduced, a suitable 
time and place will be selected for replenishing the stock, 
by drying, according to the rules for drying gun-cotton, 
the blocks removed from the torpedoes in priming them. 

The detonator has a charge of 35 grains of fulminate 
of mercury. Detonators are placed in circular wooden 
blocks, bored to hold eight each, each block being put in 
a tin box. These tin boxes should never be put below 
the water-line, but kept in a dry place on the upper 
decks, and not in the immediate vicinity of the galley or 
other fires, of the battery, or of other explosives. All 
loaded detonators are painted red, and the tin boxes con- 
taining them are also painted red and marked on top 
"dangeeous." Great care should be taken to grasp the 
box by the bottom when lifting or carrying it for, if held 
by the top only, the bottom, with its block, may slip out. 



INSPECTION OF GUN-COTTON. 

Weekly — all dry gun-cotton. 
Monthly — all dry gun-cotton. 
Quarterly — all wet gun-cotton. 

INSPECTION OF DEY GUN-COTTON. 

Weekly Inspection. — The dry gun-cotton primers 
must he inspected weekly. This can be done without 
opening the jars, by observing the condition of the blocks 
and the strips of blue litmus-paper placed between them. 

In the event of any serious decomposition having taken 



43 



place, the gun-cotton will be found more or less covered 
with pasty, yellow spots, the jar will be filled with brown- 
ish red, highly acid fumes and the litmus-paper will show 
a decided red color. In this event the gun-cotton may 
be thrown overboard, but even when in this extreme con- 
dition there appears to be little danger of immediate ex- 
plosion and, if desired for use, this gun-cotton may be 
wet with the alkaline solution (p. 45), until it has increased 
30% in weight, and used as wet gun-cotton. No serious 
risk will attend this operation. No gun-cotton should be 
thrown overboard except when a board of experts has 
pronounced it to be in the condition above described. 
This is essential, as considerable valuable gun-cotton has 
been condemned and destroyed and a sense of insecurity 
has arisen in consequence of errors in inspection. 

It frequently occurs that the blue litmus-paper becomes 
faded by exposure in the jars, but no danger is to be ap- 
prehended in consequence. 

If the litmus-paper has become reddened, but no fumes 
or pasty spots are observed, the blocks should be lifted 
out by the loose ends, of the tape and placed on a per- 
fectly clean, dry piece of blotting-paper. Then untie the 
tape and separate the blocks, being careful not to touch 
them with the fingers. (A perfectly clean, dry crash 
towel may be used in handling the blocks.) Remove the 
strips of litmus-paper, insert freshly moistened strips in 
their places and tie the tape as before. After an hour's 
interval examine the ends of the strips of litmus-paper. 
If they have become reddened, wet the blocks with the 
alkaline solution (p. 45), until they have increased 30% 
in weight and use them as wet gun-cotton. 

If the moistened litmus strips have not become red- 
dened after one hour's exposure, replace the blocks in the 
jar, close it tight and replace it in its box. 



44 



Monthly Inspection. — Even if no change is observed 
in the litmus-paper at the weekly inspections the test 
just described, with freshly moistened blue litmus-paper 
strips, is to be applied to all dry gun-cotton once each 
month and this constitutes the monthly inspection. If 
the test shows the gun-cotton to be acid, the gun-cotton 
should be wet with the alkaline solution (p. 45), until it 
has increased 30% in weight, and then used as wet gun- 
cotton. 

INSPECTION OF WET GUN-COTTON. 

Chiartely Inspection. — The wet gun-cotton is packed 
in the Service and Exercise cases and contains from 30% 
to 35% of water. The gross weight of gun-cotton and 
case is marked upon each case. These cases are to be 
separately weighed every three months and any loss in 
the gross weight made up by the addition of pure water 
poured through the filling-hole, which should then be 
carefully closed, 

PEECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN INSPECTION. 

Do not handle the gun-cotton with the bare hand. 
Never touch litmus-paper with the bare hand. Blue 
litmus-paper may become reddened by the acid sub- 
stances exuded from the skin. Litmus-paper should al- 
ways be handled with the forceps provided in the Chem- 
ical Box. 

Always moisten the litmus-paper before making the 
test, using the distilled water provided in the Chemical 
Box. Hold the litmus-paper strip in the forceps, dip one 
of the glass rods, provided in the Chemical Box, in the 
bottle of distilled water and then apply the moist rod to 
the paper. The litmus-paper must be moist, only, and 
not reeking with water. Should the supply of water in 



45 



the Chemical Box be exhausted, water distilled on board, 
or fresh rain water, may be used, provided it first be 
tested and found free from acid reaction. 

Make a comparative test to prove that there is, or is 
not, an acid reaction. As blue litmus-paper may some- 
times become slightly reddened when moistened with dis- 
tilled water only, a comparison should always be made 
by taking two pieces of fresh blue litmus-paper and mois- 
tening one with distilled water and the other with dilute 
vinegar. 

Always examine the test papers by white light. Litmus- 
paper will present a reddish appearance in any apartment 
that is shellacked or colored; the examination of test 
papers should therefore be made only in a light room or 
in the open air. 

Do not mistake iron rust for pasty yellow spots. Gun- 
cotton sometimes becomes rusted in the course of manu- 
facture, or from the cases in which it is packed. The 
rust does no harm. 

Avoid unnecessary handling of the blocks, as they are 
apt to flake and crumble. 

ALKALINE SOLUTION. 

The alkaline solution refered to above is made by dis- 
solving four ounces of dry carbonate of soda in one gal- 
lon of rain or distilled water. When it is found necessary 
to wet dry gun-cotton this solution may be poured into 
the jar holding the blocks. 

RULES FOR DRYING GUN-COTTON. 

Wet gun-cotton primers can be dried by any of the 
following methods : — 

1. Exposure in a steam-drier. 

2. " to calcium chloride. (Ca Cl 2 ). 

3. " in a dry atmosphere. 



46 



The quantity of dry gun-cotton primers that are fur- 
nished being very small, the stock should be replenished 
as fast as used by drying the wet blocks removed from 
the torpedoes in priming them. 

DRYING BY EXPOSURE IN A STEAM-DRIER. 

The steam-drier must be located above the water-line, 
remote from fires and lamps and where it will not be 
subject to disarrangement. Its supply of steam is to be 
derived from a suitable part of the steam-heating appar- 
tus of the ship or from any other convenient source of 
low-pressure steam by piping fitted at the Navy Yard. 

The blocks to be dried are separately weighed, the 
weight of each marked on it with a soft lead-pencil (never 
putting labels of any kind on the gun-cotton) and then 
strung on the rods, with the iron washers strung between 
adjacent blocks, and placed in the baskets of the drier. 
The baskets are put in the drier, the door is closed, the 
thermometer put in place, steam is turned on and the 
■ventilating openings are adjusted. 

The baskets, rods and washers must be kept free from 
dirt and oil. 

The temperature of the drying chamber must not ex- 
ceed 100° F. 

After each day's heating carefully remove and weigh 
each block, re-mark it and proceed with the drying. 

This process should be continued until the blocks no 
longer lose weight, when all but a small percentage of 
moisture will have been expelled. It has been found by 
experiment, however, that gun-cotton containing as much 
as 13% of water can be relied on to detonate, the service 
fulminate of mercury detonator being used. 

When the drying is complete remove the blocks from 
the drier, place them, while still warm, in the glass jars, 



47 



with strips of blue litmus-paper between them and close 
the jars tight. They will then be stowed and inspected 
as dry gun-cotton. 

If the process of drying is not continuous the blocks 
must be kept in a powder tank, closed tight, when the 
drier is not in operation. 

DRYING BY EXPOSURE TO CALCIUM CHLOEIDE (Ca Cl 2 ). 

This method requires : — 5 lbs. calcium chloride (Ca Cl 2 ), 
1 empty powder tank and 3 baking pans. 

The calcium chloride (Ca Cl 2 ) is cheap and can readily 
be obtained from any dealer in chemicals; it must not 
be confounded with chloride of lime or bleaching powder 
(Ca 2 Cl 2 ). The latter has a strong odor of chlorine and, 
if used instead of the calcium chloride (Ca Cl 2 ), might 
cause decomposition of gun-cotton. The former is odor- 
less and has no bleaching properties. To distinguish 
whether the substance has any bleaching properties, stir 
a small portion in an equal volume of water and immerse 
a piece of blue litmus-paper in the mixture. If the color 
disappears from the paper when dry (turning white), the 
substance is chloride of lime or bleaching powder (Ca 2 
Cl 2 ) and must not be used. 

The powder tank can be readily procured on board ship; 
care must be taken that it closes easily and air-tight. 

The baking pans should be of such a size that three of 
them will cover the bottom of the tank when placed along- 
side of each other; made of stout tin, free from solder, 
and 5 to 6 inches deep. 

Divide the calcium chloride between the three pans 
and place these pans, which must be clean and free from 
oil or grease, in the oven of the galley and allow them to 
remain there until all traces of moisture disappears. Stir 
the calcium chloride occasionally with a clean metal rod 



48 



to expose the lower particles. Break it into pieces the 
size of a pigeon's egg. When all traces of moisture have 
disappeared remove the pans to a dry place and allow 
them to cool. The calcium chloride must not be put in 
the tank, nor the gun-cotton exposed to it, while warm. 
Place the tank in some suitable location where it will not 
be disturbed and, when the calcium chloride is cooled, 
place the pans in the bottom of the tank and lay over 
them a copper sieve, tinned copper wire being the best. 
Then place the blocks to be dried on the sieve and close 
the tank. Open the tank every 3 or 4 days, weigh the 
blocks, marking the weight and date with a soft lead- 
pencil on them and dry the calcium chloride as before. 
Continue this until the blocks have ceased to lose weight. 
While the calcium chloride is drying, the blocks are to 
be kept in the tank, which must be closed to exclude the 
moisture in the air. When they have ceased to lose 
weight stow them in the glass jars for dry gun-cotton 
primers, taking care to lay between them strips of blue 
litmus-paper, and treat them according to the rules laid 
down for dry gun-cotton. 

This opperation is independent of the condition of the 
atmosphere and only requires the care mentioned. 

DRYING BY EXPOSURE IN A DRY ATMOSPHERE. 

String the blocks to be dried on a wood, brass or cop- 
per rod or pipe, which must be free from dirt and oil, or 
place them on a shelf made of wire netting, separating 
the blocks from each other to expose all surfaces freely 
to the air; suspend the rod or shelf in some suitable place 
not in the vicinity of the galley or other fires, where the 
blocks will be freely exposed to the air, and be under 
cover. 

Expose the blocks only when the atmosphere is dry; 



49 



at all other times keep them in an empty powder tank, 
in the immediate vicinity of the place selected for drying, 
kept closed to exclude moisture. Weigh the blocks every 
two days, noting the date and weight with a soft lead- 
pencil on them. Continue the drying until the blocks 
show no loss of weight for two consecutive weighings; 
then place them in the glass jars, with strips of blue 
litmus-paper between, and treat them acccording to the 
rules given for dry gun-cotton primers. 

This plan can only be carried out in dry climates. 



Avoid unnecessary handling of the blocks, as they are 
apt to flake and crumble. 



MISCELLANEOUS DATA. 



Dimensions of gun-cotton blocks 
length 2.9 inches. 



width 2.9 



i 2.0 " for full sized blocks, 
height 



0.5 " for primer blocks. 

Diameter of detonator hole = T 7 g inch. 

Pressure applied to blocks in the final press = 6800 
lbs. per square inch. 

Average gravimetric density of compressed dry gun- 
cotton = 1.287. 

Average weight of one cubic inch of compressed dry 
gun-cotton = 325 grains, = 0.743 oz. 

Weight of water added to each pound of dry gun-cotton 
when issued to the service as wet gun-cotton (approxi- 
mately 35%) == 0.35 lb. = 5.6 oz. 



APPENDIX. 



DUTIES OF THE INSPECTOR OF ORDNANCE. —LIST 

OF ARTICLES IN OUTFIT, WEIGHTS AND 

STOWAGE SPACE. 



DUTIES OF THE INSPECTOE OF ORDNANCE AT THE NAVY 

YARD IN CONNECTION WITH THE TORPEDO 

OUTFIT OF A SHIP. 

GEN-COTTON MAGAZINE. 

He will carefully inspect the gun-cotton magazine, satisfy himself 
that it is constructed in accordance with the Ordnance Instructions con- 
cerning shell-rooms, and the directions given on pages 40 and 41 Spar- 
Torpedo Instructions, that it is of sufficient size to stow the portion of 
the torpedo outfit defined in the "Table showing Weight, Space and 
Place of Stowage of Articles in Spar-Torpedo Outfit" and will prepare a 
plan of stowage. 

TORPEDO STORE-ROOM. 

He will carefully inspect the torpedo store-room, satisfy himself that 
it is in a proper position with regard to battery and boilers, that it is not 
exposed to undue changes of temperature, or to accidental admission of 
water, and that it is of sufficient capacity and conveniently arranged to 
stow the portion of the outfit defined in "Table showing Weight, Space 
and Place of Stowage of Articles in Spar-Torpedo Outfit." 

BATTERY LOCKER. 

He will carefully inspect the battery locker and see that it is in a 
proper position with regard to the great-gun battery and the boilers. It 
should, preferably, be in a good light. 

ship's spars and fittings. 

He will, while the ship's spars and fittings are being made and when 
they are in place, inspect them carefully, satisfy himself that the spar- 
bands are properly spaced and in line to receive the secondary spar and 
report to the Bureau the position and class of the heel-fittings and the 
leads of topping-lifts and guys, with his opinion of their efficiency and 
convenience. 

PERMANENT WIRES. 

He will ascertain what firing-apparatus the Bureau intends to place on 
board and make a requisition for the necessary wire and terminals. 



52 



Upon the receipt of these articles he will locate the firing-apparatus 
and prepare and place the permanent wires and terminals. 

He will cause a plan showing the lead of the different wires to be made, 
and will send copies to the Bureau and to the Torpedo Station, and will 
furnish one to the commanding officer of the vessel. 

No fixed rules can be given for leading permanent wires. The general 
method of leading the upper-deck wires, manner of securing to terminals 
and precautions to be observed, are given on pages 14 and 15. Perma- 
nent wires should also be led from the battery to the firing-point on the 
bridge or elsewhere. In case of electrical gun-circuits being desired, 
special directions or plans will be issued by the Bureau of Ordnance. 

LIST OF AETICLES IN SPAR-TORPEDO OUTFIT SUPPLIED 
PROM THE TORPEDO STATION. 

The Spar-Torpedo Outfit for ships having one torpedo boat comprises 
the articles given in the list. Ships having two or more torpedo boats will 
have the articles in the Boat's Outfit, necessary to the simultaneous use 
of all the boats, increased proportionally. 

BOX 1. 

Farmer's D. E. machine, Pattern A, containing: — 

Firing-key. 

Machine connecting wires (12 feet long). 

Crank. 

BOX 2. 

Reel box, containing: — 

Feet double-conductor insulated cable. 

Crank. 

BOX 3. 

Supply box, containing: — 
Monkey wrench. 

Open end wrenches. — One end fits the screw-cover of 
the torpedo case ; the other, the screw-bolts that 
secure the spindle. 
1 1 Rectifier, —a wooden rod, marked in inches, for lining 

the blocks in the primer case. ' 
6 12 Pieces of emery cloth, — for brightening wires and re- 

moving rust. 
1 2 Pairs of cutting plyers, — for general use in cutting and 

working wires. 

1 2 Pieces of okonite tape, — for insulating naked wires 

when not exposed to water. 

2 2 Earth-plates, — copper plates (coated with tin to pre- 

vent rust). 
12 24 Pieces of rubber tubing, — for insulating splices. 

1 1 Sample splice, —for instruction. 

1 2 Spools of hemp twine, —for securing rubber tubing. 

1 2 Knives, — for cleaning wires and for general use. 

1 1 Screw driver, —for general use. 



Boat's 
Outfit. 


Ship's and 
Boat's Outfit 




1 




1 




2 




1 


1 


1 


300 


300 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 



6 


12 


1 


1 


1 


1 


24 


36 


36 


36 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


12 


12 



53 



OSS Boa£ Oufflt. B ° XS - <«>»«»«*> 

Dummy detonators (painted white), — for instruction. 

Sample detonator splice, — for- instruction. 

Dummy gunpowder fuze, — for instruction. 

Spherical rubber packings. 

Paper fasteners. 

Safety pins for circuit-closer (spare). 

Spring for circuit-closer (spare). 

% by 16 screw-tap, — to cut a thread for spar screws. 

Screws for boat's steel spars, — to secure the two parts 

of a boat spar. 
4 4 Reeving-lines, — for reeving leading- wires through the 

boat's spars. 
2 2 Reeving-line weights, — to reeve the reeving-lines 

through the boat's spars. 

BOX 4. 

1 Wire box, ship's, containing: — 
4 Spar leading-wires. 

2 Machine connecting wires (12 feet long, spare). 

BOX 5. 

4 Spar-bands with key-ways. 
4 " (ordinary). 

24 Wood screws. 

BOX 6. 

4 8 Tin boxes, containing : — 

4 8 Detonator-blocks. 

32 64 Detonators. 

BOX 7. 

32 32 Gunpowder igniters. 

18 18 " fuzes. 

BOX 8. 

2 4 Glass jars with corks, containing: — 

12 24 Blocks dry gun-cotton. 

BOX 9. 

1 Testing and firing plate (when specially ordered). 

BOXES 10 AND 11. 

Secondary spars, ship's. 
Keys for same. 

BOXES 12 AND 13. 

Secondary spars, boat's. 
Toggles for same. 

BOX 14. 

Farmer's D. E. machine, Pattern C, containing: — 
Machine connecting wires (12 feet long). 
Crank. 





12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


1 


1 


2 


. 2 


1 


1 



54 



Boat's Ship's and -nnv 1 k 

Outfit. Boat's Outfit. ** u * 15, 

1 1 Wire box, boat's, containing: — 
4 4 Spar leading-wires. 

2 2 Machine connecting wires (12 feet long, spare). 
4 4 Secondary spar caps. 

4 4 Rivets for same. 

4 4 Secondary spar butts. 

4 4 Rivets for same. 

BOX 16. 

1 1 Chemical box, containing: — 

2 2 Pair forceps. 
2 2 " scissors. 

2 2 Bottles distilled water. 

2 2 " for litmus-paper. 

/4 % Quire litmus-paper. 

1 1 Tin cylinder for same. 

2 2 Pounds carbonate of soda (dry). 

1 1 Piece boiled tape. 

2 2 Glass rods. 

BOX 17. 

2 2 Spar clamps. 

1 1 Set of boat fittings, Pattern B, as follows: — 

2 2 Heel-rests. 

2 2 Hinge-plates. 

2 2 % bolts with nuts, — for securing heel-rests to hinge- 

plates. 

2 2 Swivel crutches, — each with a hinged top and two 

rollers, secured together by studs, rivets and pins. 

2 2 Bearings secured to crutches with bolts and washers. 

1 1 Cross-beam with two bearings riveted on. 

2 2 Hoods, (right and left), — each fitted with two bolts for 

securing to the cross-beam. 

2 2 Securing rods,— for securing elevating-arms to cross- 

beam. 

2 2 Elevating-arms with cog-wheels attached. 

2 2 Plate washers, — for holding elevating-arms on cross- 

beams. 

2 2 JSTuts on ends of securing rods, — to hold washers in place. 

2 2 Guide rings, — each fitted with a roller secured by studs 

and split pins. 

2 2 Screw-nuts, — each fitted with a lock-screw, to secure 

guide rings to elevating-arms. 

2 2 Worm shafts, — each in two parts, joined by a hook- 

coupling. 

2 2 Elevating-wheels, — with pins for securing same to 

worm-shafts. 

2 2 Clutches, consisting of the following parts: — 

2 2 Bearings. 



55 



oSflt. BoS' P s'oS?fit. B0X 17 - (Continued.) 

2 2 Sleeves, —with trunnions and lugs. 

2 2 Yoke-links. 

2 2 Detaching-levers, — each with transverse roller attached. 

2 2 Pins, — for locking detaching-levers. 

4 4 Bolts with split pins, — for securing parts of clutch 

together. 
16 16 % bolts, — for securing hinge-plates, swivel-crutch bear- 

ings and clutch-bearings to boat.* 
16 16 % phosphor-bronze nuts for same. 

4 4 % bolts, — for securing cross-beam bearings to deck.* 

4 4 % phosphor-bronze nuts for same. 

*Note. — These bolts are supplied at the Navy Yard where the boats are fitted. 

BOX 18. 

1 1 Testing magneto. 

BOXES 19 TO 22. {Both inclusive). 

2 2 Boat spars. 

2 2 Canvas bags for same. 

BOXES 23 TO 46. {Both inclusive). 
12 24 Service Torpedoes, Pattern D. 

BOXES 47 AND 48. 



BOXES 49 AND 50. 

12 12 Exercise Torpedoes, Pattern D, (two of which are 

empty). 

BOXES 51 AND 52. 



BOX 53. 

12 24 Service Torpedo spindles. 

12 12 Exercise " " 

24 36 Torpedo pins. 

4 8 " (spare). 

BOX 54. 

1 Ship's firing-battery. 

1 Battery tester (6.5 ohms). 

1 1 Boat's firing-battery. 

2 2 Spare cells for same. 

1 1 Battery tester (4 ohms). 

1 2 Hand-firing keys. 

3 5 Pounds sal-ammoniac. 

12 12 Spare fuze-bridges, — for testing batteries. 



Boat's 



56 



SiS^l BOX 55. 



Outfit. Boat's Outfit. 

1 1 Steam drier. 

BOX 56. 

4 4 Circuit-closers, — for Contact Torpedo. 

4 4 Spherical rubber packings for same. 

4 4 Rubber diaphragms for same. 

16 16 Brass screws, — for attaching circuit-closer. 

BOX 57. 

1 1 Contact spar leading-wires. 

2 2 Rubber diaphragms (spare). 

12 12 " washers, — for Exercise Torpedo (spare). 

12 24 " " — for Service Torpedo (spare). 

4 8 Spherical rubber packings (spare). 

In addition to the above, if no testing and firing-plate 
is furnished, 
2 Electric switches. 



Two Copies of the Torpedo Instructions, corrected to date of issue, 
will be furnished to each vessel receiving a torpedo outfit. 

These copies will be sent by mail, simultaneously with the issue of the 
outfit, addressed to the Inspector of Ordnance at the ^Navy Yard at which 
the vessel is fitted out. 



This book is corrected to 



Terminals and insulated wire for permanent wires will be furnished as 
required. 

The Bureau of Ordnance will designate which of the following will be 
supplied : — 

2 Electric switches. 

1 Testing and firing-plate. 



SUPPLIED FROM NAVY YARD. 

Torpedo spars for ship. 
Eittings for same. 
16 16 % bolts, — for securing boat-fittings to boat. 



Note. — Boxes 6, 7, 8,23 to 46 inclusive, 49 and 50, contain explosives, wliich must be 
stowed as directed in the Instructions. • 

Boxes 8 and 16 contain glass and are to be handled with care. 

Boxes 2, 4, 15 and 57 contain insulated wire and must be stowed in a cool place to 
guard against deterioration of the insulation. 

All other boxes must be stowed in a dry place and the contents kept free from rust. 





H 








iD 


»D 








I* 


© fcJO 

Si « 


«j cd <M* 


O'NCCl'-^CiiOOOOOOO^ 
rHOSrHCDrHCDiDCOCO© r-1 rH £- 
r-l rH rH -^ rH CO r-l 


• COCO 


O 


o o 


O r-l OS 




H 


^2 (N CO 


Tjl CM 


t^ 


GO ID 


CM t-i rH 




p 


h3 £ ^ 






tH 






O 


bo £ 
















O 


< 














h 


■ © 

8*1 is 


.■POO 

^ co to 


CD CO OS lD go co co co oo cm CD 
cm' cm' r-i cm co t)i' T-i c^" tH co" * ^* *A ■*# 


! ID CO 

" T-* T-* 


OS 
i-l 


»D •>* 

rid 


i>rH CM 
* CM* 


IL 

\- 

D 

o 


M 


^•paa 


^•co 


tH tH t-I iH 






T—I 




ft 




Q 












^ CO 














o 

Q 


02 


cp a> 
s o 


rH CM 












HI 
0. 


02 


9 rO 


CM 












DC 
O 






















© 














H 




"£ "S 












tO 


ID 








Z 






« t* CM* 

rQ co co 




CN GO 




O-*00OOQOOl0 


coco 


CD 






O r-i >D 






OS -* 




CD lO CD CO O i-l ""* O 


TP CM 


CO 






T-i TH CM 


"~ 




&c $ 


^°° rt 








■^ "rjl "rtl CO t—I 












CO 


H 


fcc £ 






















111 


fe 

H 


<1 






















i © 






















o 


O 


3*1 a 


£ co cd 

CD CO 




COOS 
CM'tH 




COCO CD CD CO CM > CD 
Th TH* CM r-" CO * ■<*" TH* CM* 


JD CO 
iH i-l 


T-i 






rHrH CM 
* i-i 


oc 


02 


c3 *" 








1— 1 1—1 1—1 1—1 












< 

IL 


H 

O 


H A 


Q 










































o 


M 


© © 






















in 
a 




-D X 
























s j 


cm cm 

i—i 




i— 1 tH 




(MrtHHrtH<M!MHi- 


rH i—l 


iH 






i— 1 1— 1 i— I 


< 

o 

i- 




£ o 1 






















K g ° g 






ID 


o 






C0 


o di cd 
>-; t- cd 


OfN'Xit-tNO^OOOOffiiOOiO 


CO GO 


J>- 


O JD 






ft!) tl)^ 

Pits © 2 

«i | * s 


^HOS^CDCMCOiOCDCOO Ot-O 


-<# CM 


CO 


GO »Q 


T- 1 T-i CM 


O 
111 


I— i 


TH <M (M xt< <N tH tH 






i— 1 


















o 

< 

-J 

Q 

z 
< 


g. © « © o 


4^3 

SH rH GO 


OCOOSlO ^COCDCDOOCM GO 


ID CO 




ID rH 


rHrH CM 


o 


(MNHN^t-H^HO: Ir-iDC^ 


i-l TH 


" 


rH O 


1-1 


O H 




GO 


»OiOiO lO CD iflLOiOH 


CM CD 


»D 


ID »D 


GO CM ID 


p 


t- t- 


O J^ O CD* ID CD' CD CD !M* GO i^ CD* CD* ID 


GO CD 


tH 


t-GO 


CD iCJf- 


111 




T-J T-l 


(MHHH 1— 1 tH T— It— 1 t—I 






T—I 


r-l 


o 


s w 
















< 


| s 

Is 

3 ° 

M r 
















0. 




CO OS 


O CM iO CD O CO CO O iO CD 


iO 


ID 


ID »D 


1^- CM CM 


CO 


^ 


tH CM 


co o cd d ■*' H H 6 ri to io cd co h 


CO CO 


O 


CD* GO* 


OS O rH 


H 

z 
o 




-I— 1 T— 1 

CO 00 


T-l 1-1 TH T-l T-l <M T-i T-i T-l T-1 iH 

iO uOkD CDCD lDGO CO 


i-l -r-l 
CD»D 


tH 


TH T-l 


T-l T-i 

GO CM CM 


111 


j 


T- CO 


cd* go o cd" co cq CM CD O CD £^ OS CO* OS* 


-* OS 


iD 


r-l CM 


OS CM 00 


H P=H 




T-l T-l 


1-1 T-H CM T-l OS O T-l TH TH CO HCOH 


CM tH 




CM *D 




o 


p o 
o 






tH CM tH 










_ ._ • CD 


!M 








z 
o 


o © © 
o -S § 




i-l CO CM 

tH CM CO ^i ^lOCDt-CO O COW 


CDt- 


^f 


ID OS 


cot- CO 


^os~ 


^ ^tH tH tH tH tH +J lOlC 
O CM 


iO »D 


ID 








CO rH 


rH tH OS 










z 
to 


H o cm 


T—I 


























111 

-1 












50 M 

HI 

S ft 

O 

o 


O 


CO 

< 


O 
H 

9 

M 

g 


O H 


I 1 




s 

o 












M S 


0Q 



INDEX 



PAGE. 

After guy — ship's torpedo spar 16 

Alkaline solution 45 

Amount of water in wet gun-cotton 44 

Apparatus for drying gun-cotton 13, 47, 48, 49 

Articles for testing gun-cotton. (See Chemical box). 

list of in outfit 52 

of torpedo outfit supplied at Navy Yard 15, 56 

from Torpedo Station 14,52 

spare 1, 14 

Bancls,spar 8, 53 

Batteries, firing. (See Firing-batteries). 

Battery-cell, discription 27 

" cells, spare 27, 55 

" locker 51 

tester 28, 55 

Blocks, detonator 11, 53 

primer, dry 12, 39, 40, 41, 49, 53 

Boat, firing-batteries. (See Firing-batteries). 

" fittings, Pattern B 8, 9, 10, 54, 55 

" spar. (See Spar). 

" to test the circuit from 21 

" wire-box 7, 54 

Bow-fittings 8, 54 

Box, chemical 13, 54 

" gunpowder fuzes and igniters 12, 53 

" reel 6, 52 

" stuffing 3 

" supply 8, 52 

" torpedo packing 39 

" wire, boats 7, 54 

" ships 6, 7, 53 

Butts, secondary spar 5, 54 

Cable, insulated. (See Reel box). 

Caps, secondary spar 5, 54 

" rivets for. 54 

" water. (See Stuffing-boxes). 

Care and management of firing-batteries .... 29 

" of gun-cotton and detonators 41 

Case, primer. (See Primer case). 

Cell, battery. . . : — : 27 



60 

PAGE. 

Cells, battery, spare 27, 55 

Charge, detonator 10, 42 

" primer, dry. (See Primer charge). 
Calcium, chloride. (See Chloride of calcium). 

Chemical box 13, 54 

Chloride of calcium 47 

" " how distinguished from chloride of lime 47 

" " " test of, for bleaching properties 47 

" " to be used instead of chloride of lime 47 

" " lime. (See Chloride of calcium). 

Circuit-closer, Pattern B, description 4 

" how attached..... 4,22 

" " test 22,23 

" " " necessary to be water-tight 23 

" " " " number issued 4,56 

" " safety-pin to be in before priming 23 

" to be tested before priming 23 

" " safety-pins, spare 53 

" " spring, spare 53 

weight of 5 

Circuit testing, from ships 20 

" to test the, from boats 21 

Clamps, spar 10, 54 

Cloth, emery 52 

Commanding officer of vessel to be furnished with plan of wires. . . 52 

Condition of firing-batteries, how to test 28, 29 

Connection to terminal, machine, or battery not to be made until . . 20, 21 

Contact, fire on, when using circuit-closer, Pattern B 24 

" spar leading-wires, Pattern B. (See Wires). 
" torpedo. (See Torpedo). 

Continuity of wires, testing 32, 38 

Crutch, swivel 8, 54 

Cutting plyers 52 

Depth. (See Immersion). 

Detonator 10, 41, 42, 53 

blocks 10, 53 

bridge, resistance of 11 

" care of 41 

" charge 11, 42 

" dummy 12, 53 

" packing and stowage 10, 42 

" splice - sample 53 

" splicing on 18 

" testing, manner of 17 

" when tested, to be put in safe place 17 

Diaphragms, rubber 56 

Distance, proper, for contact torpedo before firing 21 

" " " exercise " " 22 

" service " " " 21 



61 

PAGE. 

Drier, steam 13, 46, 56 

Dry primers. (See Primer). 

Drying apparatus, gun-cotton 13, 47, 48, 49 

" gun-cotton, rules for 45 

Dummy detonators 12, 53 

" gun-powder fuze 53 

Dynamo-electric machine, pattern A 32, 52 

C 36, 53 

Earth-plates 52 

Electric switches 15, 56 

" " and permanent wires, use of 25 

" " not issued with permanent firing apparatus 15 

" " " to be used as firing-keys 26 

Emery cloth 52 

Exercise torpedo. (See Torpedo). 

Fasteners, paper 53 

Fire at will, contact torpedoes 24 

" on contact, contact torpedoes 24 

" torpedoes using A machine and firing-key 21 

" C " 21 

" " " battery and hand-firing key 21 

Firing-batteries 27 

boats 28, 55 

" how to test condition of 28, 30 

" " management and care of 29 

" " no connection to be made with until 20, 21 

" not to be userl to test the circuit 21 

" number furnished 27 

ships. 28, 55 

Firing-key, D. E. machine, pattern A 34, 52 

" " " " " to test 36 

Fittings, boats. (See Boat fittings). 

" bow 8 

heel, ship's torpedo spar 16 

" substitute for 16 

" ship's spar 16, 56 

Forward guy, ship's torpedo spar, how fitted 16 

Fuze bridges, spare 55 

" gunpowder, dummy 53 

splicing on 25 

Fuzes, gunpowder 12, 53 

Fuzing torpedoes. (See Torpedo). 

Glass jars for dry primers 12, 41, 53 

Gun-cotton, amount in torpedo outfit 40 

" of water in when wet 44 

" " apparatus for drying 13, 57, 48, 49 

" " articles for testing. (See Chemical box). 

" " care of 41 

" " dry, packing and stowage of 39 



62 

PAGE. 

Gun-cotton, inspection of . . . .... . .-. 42 

" precautions to be taken 44 

" " magazine 41 

" " miscellaneous data 49 

." " primers. (See Primers). 

" " rules for drying 45 

" " test of. (See Inspection of gun-cotton). 

" "■ removed in priming, where placed 17, 22 

" " wet, packing and stowage of- . . . . 39 

Gunpowder fuze, dummy . . 53 

" " splicing on 25 

fuzes 12, 53 

" igniters 11, 53 

" torpedoes, improvised 24 

Guy, after, ship's torpedo spar 16 

" forward," " " how fitted 16 

Hand-firing key 31, 55 

Heel fittings, ship's torpedo spar, description 16 

" substitute for 16 

Hemp twine 52 

Horizontal distance. (See Distance). 

Igniters, gunpowder 12, 53 

Immersion, proper for the exercise torpedo 22 

" " " " service torpedo 21 

" " " " contact torpedo 21 

Improvised torpedoes, gunpowder 24 

Inspection of gun-cotton 42 

"• precautions to be taken 44 

Inspectors of ordnance at Navy Yard, duties of. 51 

Instructions, Torpedo, copies of 56 

Insulated cable. (See Reel box). 

Insulating splices 38 

Insulation of wires 37 

" " " not to be damaged . , 37 

". " testing the 32 

Jars, glass, for dry primers 12, 41, 53 

Key for ship's secondary spar 5, 53 

" hand-firing 31, 55 

Knives > 3 

Lead-covered wires 14 

Leading-wires. (See Wires). 

Lift, topping, ship's torpedo spar, how fitted 16 

Lines, reeving .- 20, 53 

" " weights 20, 53 

Locker, battery . , 51 

Machine connecting wires 6, 7, 52, 53, 54 

" dynamo-electric, pattern A 32, 52 

" C 36, 53 

" no connection to be made with until torpedo is immersed. 20, 21 



63 

PAGE. 

Magazine, gun-cotton 41 

Magneto, testing 31, 32, 55 

Management and care of firing-batteries 29 

Monkey-wrench 52 

Navy Yard, articles of torpedo outfit supplied at 14, 56 

" Inspectors of ordnance at, duties of 51 

No connection to be made to terminal, battery, or machine until . . 20, 21 

Officer commanding vessel to be furnished with plan of wires 52 

Okonite tape 18, 52 

Open-end wrench 52 

Outfit, spar-torpedo, amount of gun-cotton in 40 

articles of, invoice number of boxes containing. 57 

" list of 52 

" " place of stowage 57 

" spaced occupied when boxed 57 

" " supplied at Navy Yards 14, 56 

" " " from Torpedo Station 48 

" " weight of when boxed 57 

how designated 1 

includes 1 

Packing, spherical rubber 3, 53, 56 

Paper fasteners 53 

Permanent wires 14, 56 

" plan to be furnished to 52 

" use of 25 

Pins, safety, for circuit-closer, spare 53 

" " " " " to be in before priming 23 

" torpedo 5, 55 

" spare 55 

Plate, testing and firing 53, 56 

Plates, earth 52 

Plyers, cutting 52 

Precautions to be taken in inspection of gun-cotton 44 

Preparation of contact torpedo 22 

" " exercise " pattern D 22 

" service " " " 17 

Primer blocks 12, 39, 40, 41, 53 

" case, description of 2 

" charge 40, 41 

" not to remain long in exercise torpedo 22 

" dry gun-cotton, care of 41 

" " " " how packed and stowed 12,39,41 

" " " " inspection of 42 

" " " " number furnished 41, 42 

" " " " precuations to be observed with 42, 44 

" " " " testing. (See Inspection of gun-cotton). 

" wet " " how packed 39 

Priming the exercise torpedo 22 

" " service torpedo 17 



64 

PAGE. 

Priming, wet gun-cotton removed in, where stowed 17, 22 

Kectifier J 9, 52 

Reel box 6, 52 

Reeving lines 20, 53 

line weights 20, 53 

Resistance of detonator bridge 11 

Rivets for secondary spar butts 54 

" caps 54 

Rubber diaphragms 4, 56 

" packing, spherical 3, 53, 56 

tubing 38, 52 

" washers 2, 56 

Rules for drying gun-cotton 45 

Safety-break of contact spar leading-wires 6 

" " to be kept open until 24 

Sample splice 52 

" " detonator 53 

Safety-pin circuit-closer, spare 53 

" " " " to be in before priming 23 

Screw driver 52 

tap . 53 

Screws for boat-spar, pattern A 53 

Secondary spar. (See Spar). 
Service torpedo. (See Torpedo). 

Shipping contact torpedo, safety-pin to be in before 23 

" secondary spar. (See Spar). 
" torpedo. (See Torpedo). 
Ship's firing-batteries. (See Firing-batteries). 

" testing circuit from 20 

" torpedo spar. (See Spar). 

" wire box 6, 53 

Solution, alkaline 45 

Spar-bands 8, 53 

" boat, pattern A 10, 55 

" " " " screws for... 53 

" to be taken apart when not in use 10 

" clamps 10, 54 

" leading-wires. (See Wires). 

" secondary, butts 5 5 54 

" rivets 54 

caps 5 } 54 

" rivets 54 

keys 5j 54 

pattern A, description 5 

" difference between boats and ships ... 5 

" how packed for boats 5, 54 

" ships 5, 54 

" " number supplied 5 

pattern A, shipping 19 



65 

PAGE. 

Spar secondary, pattern A, toggles 5, 53 

ship's, description 15 

fittings 16, 56 

" number supplied 15 

torpedo. (See Torpedo). 

Spare articles 1, 14 

Spherical rubber packing 56 

Spindle for torpedo. (See Torpedo). 

Splice wire, insulating of 38 

" sample 52 

" detonator, sample 53 

" towing strain on, how to prevent 19 

Splicing on detonator 18 

" gunpowder fuze 25 

" wires 37 

Spring for circuit-closer, spare 53 

Steam-drier 13, 46, 56 

Store-room, torpedo 51 

Strain, towing on splices, how to prevent 19 

Stuffing boxes 3 

Supply-box 8, 52 

Switches, electric. (See Electric switches) 

" and permanent wires, use of 25 

Swivel-crutch 8, 54 

Table showing weight, space, and place of stowage of articles 57 

Tape, okonite 18, 52 

Terminals 15 

connection with not to be made until 20 

Test circuit through circuit-closer, pattern B, how to 22, 23 

" condition of firing batteries, how to 28, 30 

Tester, battery 28, 55 

Test, gun-cotton. (See Inspection of gun-cotton). 

Testing and firing-plate 53, 56 

" circuit-closer, pattern B 22 

" circuit from boat 21 

" " " ship 20 

" continuity of wires 32, 38 

" detonator circuit in contact torpedoes 24 

" " manner of 17 

" when, put in a safe place 17 

" gun-cotton, articles for. (See Chemical box). 

" insulation of wires 32 

" magneto 31, 32, 55 

Toggles, secondary spar 5, 53 

Topping lift, ship's spar 16 

Torpedo, contact, circuit-closer to be tested before priming 22 

" " fuzing 23 

" " no connection to be made until 21 

" " preparation of 22 



66 



Torpedo, contact, priming 

proper distance and immersion 

shipping 

safety-pin to be in 

splicing on detonator for 

testing circuit 

to fire at will 

" " on contact 

spar leading-wires, pattern B 7, 22, 

exercise, pattern D, description 

" " fuzing 

" " necessary to be closed water-tight . . 

" "no connection to be made until 

" " number issued 

" outfit of 

" packed 

" preparation of 

" primer not to remain in long 

" " priming 

" *' shipping 

" " spindle packed 

" " splicing detonator on 

" " testing 

" " weight, empty 

" " " of charge 

" " when issued filled with wet gun- 
cotton 3, 

proper distance and immersion 

Instructions, copies of 

outfit. (See Outfit). 

no connection to terminal, battery, or machine to be made 

until 

packing boxes 

pins. (See Pins). 

service and contact, proper distance and immersion 

pattern D, conversion of to contact torpedo 

" " description 

" " firing 

" " fuzing 

" " necessary to be closed water tight . . 

" "no connection to be made until 

" not advisable to prime long before 

using 

" '.' number -issued 

" outfit 

" " preparation of 

" " primer-case 

" " priming 

" ." shipping 



PAGE. 

23 

21 

23 

23 

23 

24 

24 

24 

23, 24 

2 

22 

3,22 

20, 21 

2,40 

40, 55 

39 

22 

22 

22 

22 

5, 55 

22 

22 

3 

3 

39, 44 

22 
56 



20, 21 
39 

21 

2, 22 

1 

21 

19 

2 

20, 21 

17 

1,40 

40, 55 

17 

2 

17 
19 



67 

PAGE. 

Torpedo, service, pattern D, splicing detonator on 18 

" spindle 2, 55 

" testing 20,21 

" " " " weight, empty 2 

" " " -" "- of charge — 2 

" " " when issued filled with wet gun- 
cotton 2, 39, 44 

" spars, ship's 15 

" " " number of 15 

Torpedo Station, articles supplied from 52 

" store-room 51 

Torpedoes, firing, using A machine and firing-key 21 

" C " 21 

" battery and hand-firing key 21 

" gunpowder improvised 24 

" how named 1 

" packed and marked 39 

" to be stowed on board ship 39 

" intended use of 1 

" when received on board, what to do with 39 

Towing strain on splices, how to'prevent • 19 

Tubing, rubber 38, 52 

Twine, hemp 52 

Use of permanent wires and electrical switches 25 

" " leading-wires with circuit-closer, pattern B 22, 23, 24 

Washers, rubber 2, 56 

Water, amount in wet gun-cotton 44 

" caps. (See Stuffing Boxes). 

Weights, reeving line 20, 53 

Wet gun-cotton, amount of water in 44 

" packing and stowage of 39 

" removed in priming, where placed 17, 22 

" primers. (See Primers). 

Will, to fire at, contact torpedo, using circuit-closer, pattern B 24 

Wire box, boat's 7, 54 

" ship's 6, 7,53 

Wire, continuity of, testing the 32, 38 

" insulation of 37 

" " not to be damaged 37 

" testing the 32 

" splice, insulating 38 

Wires, contact spar leading, pattern B 7, 22, 23, 24 

" lead-covered 14 

" machine connecting 6, 7, 52, 53, 54 

" permanent. (See Permanent). 

" plan of, to be furnished to 52 

" spar leading, how marked 7 

boats 7 

" to be led through spar 20 



68 

PAGE. 

Wires, spar leading, never to be connected to terminals, battery, or 

machine until 20, 21 

ship's 6,54 

" " " to be stopped to spar.. 19 

" splicing 37 

Wrench, monkey 52 

Wrenches open-end 52 



PLATES 



PLATE I. 
Service Torpedo. —Pattern D. 

A barrel. 

B lower head. 

C upper " 

g, h splices between leading-wires and detonator-wires. 
K handle. 

I lugs for handle. 

k " " spindle. 

i, i screw-holes for attaching circuit-closer. 

n screw-rib for screw-cover. 

r projection on handle shipping into spindle. 

t screw-bolts securing spindle to lugs. 
H spindle. 

L spar leading-wires. 
M water-cap. 
P primer-case. 
screw-cover. 
w rubber washer. 
G spherical rubber packing. 
B, B dry gun-cotton primer. 
x detonator. 
Y wet charge. 



Plate I 




Q 



J£ 






^ / 


r 
C 




17 

c 


o 


O 


T 

o 


T 

c 

>S ) 



PLATE II. 

Exercise Torpedo. —Pattern D. 

c case. 

d lower loop. 

e, e loops for transportation thumb-screw and for spindle. 

/ throw-back hinge with thumb-screw. 

H spindle. 

O cover. 

w rubber washer. 

M water-cap. 

6r spherical rubber packing, 

Y, T, Y, Y wet charge. 

D, D, D, D dry primer. 

x detonator. 

L spar leading-wires. 

g, h splices between leading-wires and detonator- wires. 



Plate II 




PLATE III. 

Circuit-closer.— Pattern B. — Contact Torpedo. 

A hollow brass casting. 

31 water-cap. 

G spherical rubber packing. 

0, O feet for attaching circuit-closer to service torpedo, Pattern D. 
B inner brass plunger. 

G spiral spring. 
JST ebonite collar. 

1, J binding-posts. 
E contact springs. 

t screw-cover. 

s, s contact arms. 
K outer plunger. 

I safety-pin. 

V rubber diaphragm. 

k friction-plate. 



Plate III 




W0mm//////m/////m///////;/////////;//!W( 




PLATE IV. 

SECOND ARY SPARS. 

Fig. 1, Ship's. —Pattern A. 



A main spar. 
B secondary spar. 
a, a spar-bands. 
b key-way. 
c key. 

I hole for torpedo-pin. 
m torpedo-pin. 



Pig. 2, Boat's.— Pattern A. 



R main spar. 

H secondary spar. 

i butt. 

Tc cap. 

g toggle. 

I hole for torpedo-pin. 
m torpedo-pin. 



Plate IV, 




PLATE V. 
Contact Spar-leading Wires. —Pattern B. 



B battery. 

C contact torpedo. 

x circuit-closer. 

D contact spar leading-wires. 

H hand-firing key. 

S safety-break. 



Plate V, 




PLATE VI. 

Spar-Torpedo Boat-fittings. —Pattern B. 

£ heel-rest. 

H swivel-crutch. 

B cross-beam. 

D bearing, rivetted to cross-beam and bolted through rail. 

E elevating-arm. 

m plate washer. 

n nut on end of securing rod. 

G guide-ring. 

K gear on elevating-arm. 

M worm. 

N worm-shaft, forward length. 

O " 4< after 

X hook-coupling. 

P elevating-wheel. 

Q clutch. 

L detaching lever. 

T torpedo. 

A main spar. 

B secondary spar. 



Plate VI 




PLATE VII. 

Junction of Tubes Forming Boat's Spar. —Pattern A. 

A large tube. 

B small tube. 

c, c rings. 

d shoulder. 

e screw holes. 

/ feather. 

a score. 



Plate VII 



o* 




W 



'© 



^ 



^ 



re 



PLATE VIII. 
Fig. l, Detonator. 



A copper case. 
B plug. 

c, c detonator-legs. 
D bridge. 

F gun-cotton priming. 
H fulminate of mercury. 



Fig. 2, Detonator Block. 



A block. 

B " cover. 

C, C detonators. 

D, D tin box. 



Plate VIII 







Si, 




PLATE IX. 
Fig. l, Permanent Wires. 

A, A electric switches (on bulwarks under bridge). 

B, B forward terminals. 
0, C after 

D, D forward permanent wires. 

E, E after 

6r, G permanent wires leading from bridge to lower binding-posts of 

electric switches. 
H, H wires leading from bridge to common-return terminals, below 

switches. 
K terminal on bridge for wires H, H. 
L, L " " " " " G, G. 
X firing-battery connected to terminals on bridge. 

Fig. 2, Connections with Firing-key of "A" Machine. 

B, B terminals of firing-key. 

rp rp a << a 

Key "T" test key. 

Key "F" firing key. 

M, M wires to terminals L, L on bridge. (Fig. 1.) 

JV" wire to terminal K on bridge (common return). (Fig. 1.) 

O, O machine-connecting wires. 

Fig. 3, Connections with Firing-battery. 

B, B terminals of battery. 

M, M wires to terminals L, L on bridge. (Fig. 1.) 

JSf wire to terminal iTon bridge (common return). (Fig. 1.) 

H hand-firing key. 



Plate IX 




PLATE X. 

Fig. 1, Electric Switch. 

A permanent wire to forward torpedo. 

B " " " after 

C, C " " common return. 

D wire to battery or firing-key of machine. 

E commutator of switch. 

t Fig. 2, Terminal. 

H binding-screw. 

I permanent wire. 

to wire temporarily connected. 



Plate X 




PLATE XI. 

Heel-fittings for Ship's Spar. 

a ship's spar. 

b thrust-plate (30" diameter). 

c eyebolt through thrust-plate and ship's side. 

d heel-bolt. 



Plate XI 




PLATE XII. 
Ship's Spar Fittings. 



a ship's spar. 

b topping lift, 

c forward guy. 

d after " 

e span for topping lift (16' long). 
/ " " forward guy (16' long). 

x, x, x, x bands on spar (5' apart). 



Plate XII 




PLATE XIII. 

Battery Cell. 

a okonite jar. 

6, b zinc cylinder. 

c platinum plate. 

d muslin bag filled with crushed carbon. 

e ebonite disc. 

/ " Plug. 

g sal-ammoniac solution. 

h positive terminal. 

i negative " 

k rubber cover. 

r rubber ring. 



Plate XIII 




PLATE XIV. 
Battery Tester. 



a, a battery terminals. 

b " tester. 

c fuze-bridge in tester. 



Plate XIV, 




PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1, Hand-firing Key. —Pattern B. 

a, a hickory pieces. 

c, c contact studs. 

L, L leading-wires. 

d rubber cot. 

e safety-pin with hole for laniard. 

/ eye-bolt for laniard. 

Fig. 2, Diagram Showing Hand-firing Key in Circuit. 

B battery. 

H hand-firing key. 

w, w leading-wires. 



Plate XV 




PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1, "A" Machine and Firing-key Connected. 

A "A" machine. 
G firing-key. 

B, B terminals of firing-key. 
T, T " 

Key "T" test key. , 
" "F" firing-key. 
O machine-connecting wires. * 
w, w wires to torpedo. 

Fig. 2, "C" Machine Connected. 

_D "C" machine. 

C firing-key (in the machine). 

Key "T" test key. 

" • "F" firing-key. 
w, w wires to torpedo. 



Plate XVI. 




PLATE XVII. 



Fig. 1, firing-key, short circuit. 

" 2, " testing circuit. 

" 3, firing circuit. 

O, machine-connecting wires. 
w, w wires to torpedo. 
jE>, B terminals of firing-key; 

yi nn a u a 

Key "T" test key. 
Key "F" firing-key. 



Plate XVII. 




PLATE XVIII. 
Steam-drier. 



Plate XVIII 




Library of the Marine Corps 

lllill 

3000221213